Crisis de Venezuela 2018

Crisis en Venezuela. Publicado 11:00 11:00. Cómo el éxodo de hombres vuelve (aún) más relevantes a las mujeres venezolanas ... Juan Requesens, quien estaba encarcelado desde agosto de 2018 ... El plan de Venezuela para salir de la crisis en 2018 Publicado: 25 ene 2018 13:54 GMT El país enfrenta una difícil situación económica calificada por el Gobierno como una guerra económica. El duro inicio de año de los venezolanos por crisis económica ... la otra cara de la diáspora de Venezuela que ... El FMI estimó una caída del PIB de 12% en 2017 y de 6% para 2018. De haber ... En julio de 2020, el índice de desempleo era de 20,2 % comparado con el 10,7 % del mismo mes de 2019. A esa 'compleja situación' hay que agregar el éxodo de venezolanos regresando a su país a ... The Roots of Venezuela’s Economic Crisis. December 28, 2018. ... Steve is a retired Professor of History at Universidad de Oriente in Venezuela, and he joins us today in our studio for a change. ... De acuerdo con un estudio realizado por la Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela, en manos de la oposición, la tasa de inflación anual del país alcanzó el 1.300.000% en los 12 meses hasta noviembre ... Cases of severe malnutrition of children under 5 years old increased from 10.2 percent in February 2017 to 14.5 percent in September 2017, crossing the World Health Organization crisis threshold ... Fuente: BBC News. Tras meses de letargo, las placas tectónicas de la política en Venezuela se volvieron a mover. Como un «maremoto» lo define el diputado Stalin González, que junto al dos veces candidato presidencial Henrique Capriles se han desmarcado del discurso abstencionista del líder opositor Juan Guaidó y buscan condiciones para participar en las elecciones parlamentarias ... Since the last report of the Brookings Institution Working Group on Venezuela in April 2017,1 the crisis in Venezuela has considerably worsened. As of fall 2018, the country is in a rapidly ... Crisis en Venezuela: una investigación de la ONU acusa a Maduro de crímenes de lesa humanidad y su canciller dice que son 'falsedades' de 'gobiernos subordinados a Washington' 16 septiembre 2020

Love! Free Energy Project - 2020 Update

2020.09.16 23:05 Believe_Loves_Reddit Love! Free Energy Project - 2020 Update

Love! Free Energy Project - 2020 Update
This post was originally posted here in April of 2018, but it appears the team member's account was deleted: https://www.reddit.com/BelieveLovesYou/comments/8baqvk/love_free_energy_project/
We hope to continue these open source projects. We may have to branch outside of Venezuela. For more information, please check theloveorganization.com in the future!
Love! Free Energy Project
Hi there,
Probably many of you have heard many things about Venezuela, good things like its amazing landscapes, biggest oil reserves or the beauty of women, and other not so good things like hyperinflation, food shortage, robberies, hunger and more.
The truth is that Venezuela is a very particular country, but really though to live in. If you ever wonder how a day in Venezuela is, here I’ll show you what a typical day is like: As soon as you wake up, the first thing you do in the morning is to cross your fingers hoping for normal water and electricity supply.
As soon as you overcome the wateelectricity issue, then the second challenge comes up: riding a bus. In Venezuela finding a car part is almost impossible, for that reason there aren’t many buses out there to ride and there are long lines to take the ones that are left, to the point that the National Bolivarian Armed Force of Venezuela, transport people in their trucks to their jobs.
We’re going through a crisis, and it’s evident in every single aspect of our live here. Cash crisis (Yup, we cannot just go to the bank and withdraw money), payment crisis (Our credit card processing machine takes up to 30 minutes to process a purchase), educational crisis (universities strikes, lack of professors), mass exodus, slowest internet connection on hearth, etc.
But there are also many good things about Venezuela. First of all, it has amazing landscapes: Angel's fall, Medanos de Coro National Park, Merida Cable Car which is the highest and second longest cable car in the world, catatumbo lightning, and Cueva del Guácharo National Park, etc. Secondly, venezuelan people are warm, its gastronomy is amazing and it's incredibly cheap for foreigners.
Living in Venezuela isn’t an easy thing, but we’re trying to get ahead doing our best. Even though everything is so complicated, people are just biting the bullet, looking for a future. An example of this is the ‘free energy’ project. We’re a team of 5 engineers pursuing a dream: Help the world to be a better place. One of the biggest challenges humanity is facing right now, the limited resources.
Since Nikola Tesla, there’re many scientists and inventors looking for smart ways to take advantage of all these types of energy, building amazing prototypes that work great but commonly have more disadvantages than advantages. One example of common disadvantages is the efficiency, which is defined as the good use of energy in a way that does not waste any. Also, these devices could be really expensive, which makes it no feasible to build and maintain. Electricity rules the world, but to generate it, we need an input energy. So we’re working on an electric motor that works only on the basis of repulsion of permanent magnets. So this machine will only work by using the power of permanent magnets (neodymium magnets) to propel itself. Here's some information about the prototype:
The prototype
1.1) Selection of method of obtaining energy:
Our team is composed of electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers, in this way, we reached the consensus of using the magnetic field as a source of energy obtaining since most of the researchers are familiar with this field.
Similarly, the use of permanent magnets is specified since these are the best and most continuous source of magnetic field, in turn, they are easy to obtain and do not generate any type of risk for anyone who manipulates them or has contact with them. them or their generated field.
Then, after several inquiries, we realized that currently there is a great tendency to research engines that use permanent magnets as the main source of motion. Among the main ones is the design of Perendev, which is a fairly simple design and has the scoop to generate rotational movement from the repulsion of magnets.

https://preview.redd.it/2yoq788dpkn51.png?width=474&format=png&auto=webp&s=b8fd07eb1d1e596d8d1683c87da3dd54cd55fa41
the principle of the Peredev engine is by repulsion (in the case of the image using both north poles) to spin a rotor as indicated by the Black arrow. Next, you can see a Perendev motor scheme with several magnets.
https://preview.redd.it/ohqimnvgpkn51.png?width=597&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc728b95ad7ec98b9a6613169697e1d888ed0f8d
You can find a lot of designs that use the Peredev principle, therefore, this is a very suitable principle to develop since it has a large number of variants that we can prepare for our. In
https://preview.redd.it/oqw1yoojpkn51.jpg?width=660&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b5bf85c13fa5a15c8628db8797cdca4baf521add
you can see a 3D arrangement of a Perendev-type engine on which we would be based.

https://preview.redd.it/6d12qs5lpkn51.jpg?width=1349&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=68eabc1e5fae1f52aeba0f8d44a4ad12a0b4b3fe
you can check some of the plans of the new prototype we'll be building the following weeks.
1.2) Procedure:
• An investigation was made of the different studies that have been done to this engine class. In order to find out what kind of materials are used for the manufacture of the same, which magnets are the most suitable to generate an adequate repulsion, what should be the placement angles of the magnets, number of magnets that each disc should have, etc. .
• We located several simulation programs that allowed us to simplify the calculations we made for the different tests applied. These softwares handle in an adequate way the equations of magnetism.
• Sufficient information was collected about manufacturing, behavior, maximum power of magnetic field generated from permanent magnets in the market.
• An Internet search was made of the different designs that have been built and that are presumed to work, so that one can start by taking data from these designs for the manufacture of our prototype.
• The main design parameters were established for the simulation tests and how they infer in our main variables.
• Several simulations were carried out, with them we obtained data on the behavior of the main variables and how they affect our system.
• After sufficient information was obtained on the variables, the materials for the construction of the prototype were ordered and the data obtained in the simulation were checked.
• The prototype was built and several tests were carried out, varying the same as in the simulations, the main design variables.
1.3) Simulations:
For the simulations that we did, we used a program called FEMM (www.femm.info),

https://preview.redd.it/4rv7bflnpkn51.png?width=878&format=png&auto=webp&s=d99cf3fc7328c41f7c74133591e7a38fa430c33a
this program gives a great versatility since it allows to place in the simulation the characteristics of the materials and magnets that we want, as well as it allows us to vary the angle of the applied magnetic field. Another advantage of this program that allows us to see with great precision the behavior of the magnetic field at any point of the simulation and establish with a scale of colors where the highest intensities are found. This program has the versatility that Torque can calculate, which is the main variable to know if the arrangement of magnets produces energy.
For the simulations, the positioning angle of the magnets with respect to the diameter of the disc, the number of magnets for the stator and the rotor, the dimensions of the rotor and the stator were established as design parameters. With these variables, the aim was to achieve as much positive torque as possible, since this is the main indicator of effective work performed.
All the 2D schemes were made in the design program Autodesk Inventor. Which allows us to make a simple drawing that allows us to estimate the calculations and changes of the variables mentioned above. This Figure

https://preview.redd.it/ii5j2wxqpkn51.png?width=955&format=png&auto=webp&s=925325dda18508addd00af74cb71c1690095cf17
shows the one of the 2D sketch designs for export to the FEMM.
The following images, with their respective changes of variables, were exported in the FEMM program (where their simulation characteristics were defined) and the torque was calculated along a certain number of degrees of rotation. As we see in the figure we see the procedure of calculation, the behavior of the magnetic field of the whole system and the calculation of torque for a selected zone respectively.
https://preview.redd.it/cud42vespkn51.png?width=877&format=png&auto=webp&s=ea7b38083c2f0865bdae519e287dc5d505a6238f
https://preview.redd.it/rwdybgkupkn51.png?width=1202&format=png&auto=webp&s=fa3caad941b39441f62a6a6a3b66daa5f7f99a02
https://preview.redd.it/4uzi5s2wpkn51.png?width=869&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d38eeaecb4d34dfdba05eb4f43de1158776015f
In order to carry out efficiently all the simulations that had to be carried out, a series of commands was programmed through an adapter to the FEMM in LuaScrip (https://www.lua.org/),

https://preview.redd.it/wndzvteypkn51.png?width=1077&format=png&auto=webp&s=85f8d483959ccdddb112bec487ec6a578c8a275d
this multifunctional platform allows to automatically calculate the torque depending on the angle of rotation, so you can calculate the torque in the 360 degrees of the rotor. The program automatically generates a table where it shows iteration, grade and torque as shown in the red box in this Figure
https://preview.redd.it/kyexbkrzpkn51.png?width=933&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd0b232c2fa1a603b3f2b6a414deddcde46c8310
Here you can check the programming language
https://preview.redd.it/4xv70xi1qkn51.png?width=1366&format=png&auto=webp&s=4ae3dd185bf32b0219e4059f22222865f61039b9
Once the data table is obtained in the FEMM, we can export the data table to Excel and plot all the points. With these graphs of points the behavior of each configuration was analyzed and we observe the behavior of the torque and of each magnet in each degree of rotation; thus giving the opportunity to locate critical points in the studied configuration.
Excel Analysis
https://preview.redd.it/3314yzj3qkn51.png?width=1203&format=png&auto=webp&s=1bfb03fa0b4b8c2a94e661885c5b4d6fffdad655
1.4) Prototype
• Once all the results of the simulation were obtained, all the necessary materials for the prototype manufacture were quoted and purchased.
• It was left to the carpenter in charge of the manufacture of the pieces of wood to adjust the dimensions necessary for the prototype to be assembled.
• The configuration of magnets was placed in a rotor and a stator. And several movement tests were performed
Here you can check the prototype built
https://preview.redd.it/9e9pyuj7qkn51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ec36f2a56d3fbe96e5793ef291816d3695f4c043
2) Result and Analysis
• The first test that was done was to place the same amount of magnets in both the stator and the rotor and all front to front. When the simulation of this arrangement was made it was found that most of the points taken were negative and that there was a high braking torque value. Although the number of magnets was increased, this behavior remained the same.
• A base configuration was tested with 0, 30, 45 and 60 degrees of inclination of the magnets with rest to the radius of the disk and the north direction of the magnet. As a result, the best angle setting for the magnets is 30 degrees.
• It was seen that there had to be an imbalance between the forces applied to the magnets, therefore, there should be more magnets in the stator than in the rotor, the stator being an odd number and the rotor an even number. In the same way, they could not all be facing each other, but with a certain angle lag.
• It was noticed that there were always very high negative torque values when the rotor magnet was close to the next one that was driving it, this is one of the critical points.
• It was realized that there are always cyclical behaviors during turns. This is best described as a sinusoidal behavior and can be divided into 4 quadrants of behavior. It is known that the highest value is positive torque, however, there are points that give negative value.
  1. Repelling force
• When the punctual turn tests were carried out, it began to be performed with a magnet, which showed that there is a braking force just when the magnet is about to reach the next one. This tells us that forces always seek to balance and if you cannot create an imbalance, even counting on the inertia of the body, regardless of the number of magnets the rotor will always seek to slow down.
• There are unwanted forces of attraction because when the magnet of the rotor is not only repelled before reaching the next one, but it is attracted by the south of the previous one. Therefore, the negative torque at this critical point increases.
• All research and evidence suggest that it is impossible to rotate a disc with magnets by 360 degrees by itself, it is necessary to have an axis of 3 to more disks which create the necessary imbalance to make the positive torque is greater than the negative and thus create motor skills.
critical point in the simulation, put into practice
https://preview.redd.it/5487sphcqkn51.png?width=1193&format=png&auto=webp&s=c8492335551a4b14baeb05a6a8a6ba274d767549
Here we made some tests to measure repulsion

https://preview.redd.it/lnfndfueqkn51.png?width=170&format=png&auto=webp&s=893b77a302547ee43f8add289f0f7431ef142773
4) Conclusions and Recommandations
We can conclude that the use of permanent magnets as a method of generating energy is very practical and has a high level of potential, however, we must be careful to correct many details for its use. This method is very reliable that works.
Our prototype did not work, however, we were able to account for the reason and also the simulations provided key data to deduce the possible configurations and what should be the next steps to improve our prototype.
The main problem presented by the permanent magnet method is that for the desired direction of rotation, the repulsion force that generates negative torque is always more in favor than that generated by positive torque. Consequently, it is necessary to have a control of the direction of the magnetic fields so that they only make repulsion that generates negative torque for the motor to work.
In the same way, it is also necessary to control the distances of placements of the magnets so that they do not interact with each other or with other materials adjacent to them. If you want to have the magnets near, you need to have a good magnetic shield and place it in a suitable position so that the field does not interfere with the desired movement.
It is vitally important to have all the means as accurately as possible, in other words, all parts must maintain a precise geometry, good support and respect the separation distances necessary for the device to work. In our case, the carpenter did not have the required precision so the discs did not maintain the positions that they should have.
5) Other recommandations.
Taking into account the results obtained in the first prototype, we proceed to start again with investigations. Knowing that the main problem is the repulsive force in the sense that you do not want it, you have to find a way to eliminate it or reduce it as much as possible.
The idea that comes out is the use of magnetic shielding materials. These materials work as redirectors of the magnetic field, so the field does not pass and does not affect the element that is covering. With this information we propose ideas for the placement and proper use of this material to solve our problem. The first ideas that are discussed is to use Mu metal barriers (one of the materials that work as magnetic shields) in both the stator and the rotor to decrease that magnetic field that causes negative repulsion. As shown in Here and Here.

https://preview.redd.it/dvu0jdjmqkn51.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=7e8c156c650732197b12090b56f9547aaff301bb

https://preview.redd.it/d6eguqanqkn51.png?width=1198&format=png&auto=webp&s=3dfa45eb5427fd4f55cc46e42f9e884e998bb5d0
We are still investigating the properties of the screening materials, as well as other means of magnetic generation that can give us ideas to improve the Perendev engine or that definitely make us discard that idea. The aim is to be able to carry out a complete analysis of the possibilities of improvement that our project has with the resources that we have available.
The use of these screening materials when they are simulated reduce the negative repulsion in large quantity, however, when placed in contact with the magnet, the magnetic field is restored and its intensity decreases as well as the field lines in the address we want. This idea presents a good solution, but it should be studied and consider a good placement that does not cause more problems in the prototype.
There are many materials that work as screening; however, we must find the most suitable for our system. The important point of these materials is that the investigations and simulations show that they eliminate completely the second problem that was presented to us. The adjacent magnets no longer perform unwanted attractions, thus decreasing the negative torque.
Studies of the behavior of the magnetic field are made changing the geometry of the magnet. Various different forms are tested in order to seek to concentrate more the magnetic field in the desired direction. Tests were performed with shapes of arc magnets and cubes as shown in figures here and here and here.

https://preview.redd.it/vlloywtrqkn51.png?width=1181&format=png&auto=webp&s=79b4acb9ae612b7d22d85801e8ac3c6a7712af81

https://preview.redd.it/x2ty3afsqkn51.png?width=706&format=png&auto=webp&s=f77150940b1fe8d42e060672bedb0cb25c155350
Photo: https://imgur.com/a/LFlWn
Other important considerations are the exact geometries. Knowing this, it was completely designed with all the geometries necessary to make professional plans the second prototype of the engine, which has precise separation measures, holes placed in the exact positions and placement of magnets that can be changed at the convenience of the study. All this is done in a rendered environment that can be edited. We see this in this picture, here and here
Photo: https://imgur.com/a/ucyUh
Photo: https://imgur.com/a/9OTMX
Photo: https://imgur.com/a/mow87
Finally, contributions are currently being made for the new assembly and cutting of specific materials for the construction of the second prototype. This will correct the mistakes of the first one and will seek to take the knowledge previously obtained with the new ones to generate now positive results.
If you want to know more about the free energy project, please visit the following link: http://www.believe.love/3052/free-energy-project-to-launch-in-venezuela/ and learn more about it.
If you have any questions or you're willing to help, do not hesitate to ask. We'll be glad to have you with us.
submitted by Believe_Loves_Reddit to BelieveLovesYou [link] [comments]


2020.09.11 00:04 CobaltCrusader123 Wikipedia List of Every Trump Administration Scandal

0–9

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

R

S

T

U

V

W

Y

submitted by CobaltCrusader123 to copypasta [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 20:21 KT_noir Debunking TeleSUR/Abby Martin on Venezuela's crisis (English post)

Debunking TeleSUAbby Martin on Venezuela's crisis (English post)
Recently, I found an article on TeleSUR, on which Abby Martin 'debunks' supposed misconceptions about Venezuela. In the article, Martin claims that:
"We just went to five different supermarkets and the shelves were fully stocked. And this is all type of neighborhoods, all types of classes. From Nestle chocolates to coco cola products, fish, meat, vegetables and fruits."
Claiming in a pretty unambiguous way, that the situation in Venezuela is not as bad as the media might tell you.
The article also claim that, the actual shortages that are happening, are actually the product of the 'economic war' on Venezuela:
Speaking with Venezuelan economist Pascualina Curzio, Martin discovers that while there are food shortages in Venezuela, these are a product of an "economic war."
And finally, the article claims that:
  1. The current government actually has a pretty much huge public support.
  2. And that there's little evidence of government suppression.
As Martin continues her investigation, she also discovers that there is still huge support for the Venezuelan government — despite what mainstream media reports.
She traverses through the Venezuelan crowds that are marching for President Maduro's government to continue working for the people and is told by one protester: "Oligarchs, listen to this! Always, Always, Hugo Rafael Frias will be in our hearts!" in reference to the late Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez.
Walking through the sea of government supporters, Martin finds no evidence of the mainstream media narrative of government suppression.
Summarizing the article's arguments, it will go like this:
  1. The food situation in Venezuela is actually pretty decent, not as bad as the media tells you.
  2. The actual shortages are a product of the 'economic war' on Venezuela, not the government itself.
  3. The government has the support of the people.
  4. The government does not commit political repression of dissidents.
Rebuttal of the article:
Lets start with the first, 1# The food situation in Venezuela is actually pretty decent, not as bad as the media tells you.
Rebuttal: To put into perspective how wrong this affirmation is, by 2015 (2 years before this article was released), Venezuela was having a 80–90% shortage rate of milk (powdered and liquid), margarine, butter, sugar, beef, chicken, pasta, cheese, corn flour, wheat flour, oil, rice, coffee, toilet paper, diapers, laundry detergent, bar soap, bleach, dish, shampoo and soap:
https://preview.redd.it/0n9yzqp9mki51.png?width=779&format=png&auto=webp&s=3b7a1e29d7441f49e49030e29afd5c91c6cc7b8b
The Venezuelan observatory of health says that, in 2015, foodin 2016, 93,3% of homes don’t have enough money to pay for food.
In 2016, 87% of Venezuelans were consuming less due to the shortages (with a scarcity rate of 50% to 80%), and in 2017 (the year of this TeleSUR's article), 83% of Venezuelans were living in poverty, 93% could no longer afford food and that one million Venezuelan school children did not attend classes "due to hunger and a lack of public services".
Venezuela's Water Crisis HERE.
ECOVI HERE.
A study of the food security and nutrition crisis in Venezuela HERE.
The economic consequences of Hugo Chavez, HERE
2# The actual shortages are a product of the 'economic war' on Venezuela, not the government itself.
Rebuttal: The causes of this disaster are, for the surprise of absolutely anybody, THE (VERY HORRIBLE) BOLIVARIAN ECONOMIC POLICIES.
The situation of shortages of basic necessities in Venezuela has its history, during the 90's, Venezuela's food production has decline to this day, and during the Bolivarian Revolution, food imports pretty much sky rocketed, making the Bolivarian government very reliant on this.
https://preview.redd.it/5kzufx2lili51.png?width=832&format=png&auto=webp&s=8612ba1d87c95e82384b7a54c525869e444941bb

https://preview.redd.it/kl934komili51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=29bc47441d5f37db7da295dd1dd2f2c3ed66a85d

https://preview.redd.it/mwvm9deoili51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=975c6e2816f389b48e28e91994570cc7b1d742b9
Information of the previous charts and more of them are here
When Chavez inaugurated price and currency controls, shortages where taking place. (1)
And when Chavez started to nationalize industries, production dropped (1)
Among other factors like corruption contributed to current shortages, for example the military currently traffics with food, the military was involved in schemes to benefit from food scarcity rather than help assuage it, military sellers would drastically increase the cost of goods and create shortages by hoarding products, etc..
Study on the Right to Food Under Hugo Chavez
To finally debunk the notion of 'economic war' as the cause of Venezuela's shortages (and pretty much the entire crisis), one must at the DATES:
https://preview.redd.it/enjng6vpili51.png?width=3331&format=png&auto=webp&s=6a4d9ddbb5983bc79d40c3e45f2d4b5e499d3799
In 2016, a year before Venezuela confronted economic sanctions, the country have a hyperinflation rate of 800%, the GDP was shrinking by 19%, Food and medical equipment imports and fell by 70%, infant mortality increased by 44%, etc, etc…
3# The government has the support of the people.
Rebuttal: While Chavez in its time was fairly popular, this is simplistically not the case for Maduro.

https://preview.redd.it/3og6o8wsili51.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7bba0d476964ed1fc2c1554cad634f670fcda85
In 2013, Maduros approval ratings was between 40% to 50%, popularity that was partly beacuse of chavez endorsement.
In 2014 was in 24% (with 85% of Venezuelans stating that the economic situation of Venezuela was bad) and datanalysis confirmed that 66% of Venezuelans didn't want maduro to finish his 6-year term of precidency.
In 2016, a poll found that 61.4% found that Maduro had become a dictator.
In 2018, meganálisis polls found that 84.6% of Venezuelans surveyed wanted Maduro and his government to be removed from power.
And by 2019, Maduro's popularity has found an all-time low, with a approval rate of just 14%, and Juan Guaido's approval rate at 66%. (1)

(Here for a little more information and Here)
4# The government does not commit political repression of dissidents.
Rebuttal: Starting with journalism, Venezuela has seen a dangerous decline in press freedom, and, in reference to the Freedom House, Venezuela has low score in both civil liberties and political rights:

https://preview.redd.it/yjuuxokuili51.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=90464349705e79af6c8d3dfc00da44c498db239a
In 1998, independent television represent 88% of the 24 national television channels while the other 12% of channels were controlled by the Venezuelan government. By 2014, there were 105 national television channels with only 48 channels, or 46%, representing independent media while the Venezuelan government and the "communitarian channels" it funded accounted for 54% of channels, or the 57 remaining channels.
See: The Authoritarian Resurgence: Autocratic Legalism in Venezuela, from Journal of Democracy
According to the National Union of Press Workers of Venezuela, 115 media outlets have been shut down between 2013 and 2018 during Nicolás Maduro's government, including 41 printed means, 65 radio outlets and 9 television channels.
The Press and Society Institute of Venezuela found at least 350 cases of violations of freedom of expression during the first seven months of 2019.
For more information, see Censorship in Venezuela
Conclusions: To summarize the points of this post, it is that, first, there is SEVERE food scarcity and food insecurity in Venezuela and Abby Martins report about it its absolutely lame.
Second, the cause of this crisis is find in government policies, not in sanctions.
Third, the current government has very little to no support from the Venezuelan people.
Fourth, the government has an extensive history of political repression since Chavez, it has only worsen with Maduro.
Abby Martin (whether deliberately or not), obscures all of the previous information, denies the suffering of millions of Venezuelans, and gives misleading imagery and cherry-picks her ''data'' to give very stupid conclusions (TeleSUR is basically pinnacle of cheap government propaganda).
submitted by KT_noir to vzla [link] [comments]


2020.08.14 18:43 biggreekgeek Flatten the Curve. #47. Keep Calm and Carry On meme was/is Propaganda. Pentagon MEME Warfare Center. Bill Gates Gene Drive Editing. Pakistan and China Biowarfare Lab Cooperation. Chinese Spy at UC & CRISPR-Cas9/Covid-19 Data? Political Chess at the WHO. AI and Gene Drive Can Stop the Pandemic.

Previous Post Is Here
Propaganda. Real propagandists are good at what they do. Really good. This is why you don't know it's propaganda until after the dust has settled, so to speak. All we can do is look back after the fact.
The truth doesn't always lead to the facts, but the facts always lead to the truth.
I came up with that axiom years ago. It just popped into my head. Don't know why, it just did. But keep that in the back of your head whenever you read fake facts.
So what are the facts and where is the truth? What can we line up in a manner that makes sense. Where do we dig in all this information for the artifacts they try to bury from us?
Let's start at Keep Calm and Carry On. Remember that? It's strange how viral it became, isn’t it? Almost like governments like viral information pandemics they choose, and use fake facts to suppress viral information that isn't good for your mental health, like conspiracy theories.
Have you noticed me using Keep Calm and Carry On a lot? It was on purpose. I wanted to illustrate how easy it is to be bombarded by terms like Keep Calm or New Normal into everyday usage. You don't think it affects the majority of society? Please. They don't spend billions upon billions into advertising just because they like commercials, they do it because it shapes our behavior.
Keep calm and carry on posters weren't mass-produced until 2008. It is a historical object of a very peculiar sort. By 2009, when it had first become hugely popular, it seemed to respond to a particularly English malaise connected directly with the way Britain reacted to the credit crunch and the banking crash. From this moment of crisis, it tapped into an already established narrative about Britain’s “finest hour” – the aerial Battle of Britain in 1940-41 – when it was the only country left fighting the Third Reich.

2008 Financial Crisis.

That's odd timing, isn't it. They we're mass produced. And if you remember there's also strong evidence that the Financial Collapse was probably engineered by China through MBS manipulation.
Let's keep calm and dig on.
This was similar to the “Keep calm and carry on shopping” commanded by George W Bush both after September 11 and when the sub-prime crisis hit America. The wartime use of this rhetoric escalated during the economic turmoil in the UK; witness the slogan of the 2010-15 coalition government, “We’re all in this together”.
What a wonderful world we live in. Keep calm. It's all good. Nothing to fear but fear itself. Right? Because there is nothing strange about President Bush using that phrase after 9/11, or the coalition UK government saying we're all in this together. Aren't we hearing more and more about how we're all in this pandemic together? Do you really believe this is by chance? Remember, world leaders have speech writers and world wide PR firms. And let's not forget that Afghanistan seemed to be more than about a former CIA asset against the Soviet Union hiding in a cave after he brought down the World Trade Towers using terrorists who didn't pass flight school.
So the slogan started in WW2 and it was created by the British Ministry of Information. That alone should make you hit pause, ask WTH, and rewind to see what else was missed.
Memetics: A Growth Industry in US Military operations was published in 2005 by Michael Prosser, now a Lieutenant Colonel in the Marine Corps. He proposed the creation of a 'Meme Warfare Center'.
Memetic warfare has been seriously studied as an important concept with respects to information warfare by NATO's Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence. Jeff Giesea, writing in NATO's Stratcom COE Defense Strategic Communications journal, defines memetic warfare as "competition over narrative, ideas, and social control in a social-media battlefield. One might think of it as a subset of ‘information operations’ tailored to social media. Information operations involve the collection and dissemination of information to establish a competitive advantage over an opponent".

2008 Cyberattack

The 2008 cyberattack on the United States was the "worst breach of U.S. military computers in history". The defense against the attack was named "Operation Buckshot Yankee". It led to the creation of the United States Cyber Command.
That code spread undetected on both classified and unclassified systems, establishing what amounted to a digital beachhead, from which data could be transferred to servers under foreign control. It was a network administrator's worst fear: a rogue program operating silently, poised to deliver operational plans into the hands of an unknown adversary.
As usual, the suspect was Russia. Blame Russia. They stole the cookies from the cookie jar. But we have the 2008 financial collapse at the same time. Now this either points to Russia did it alone, Russia did it with China, China did it alone and Russia is the scapegoat to keep us in the dark, or an unknown party attempted to gain access. The third option is unlikely.
So we had a financial collapse. Keep calm and carry on posters mass produced in the same year. A cyberattack. All in 2008. That's a very busy year, isn’t it? It's almost like 2015.
Almost like they took control of the narrative information flow before the information went viral and an uncontrolled narrative sprang up from the information.
And that narrative control is growing and getting stronger. Let's think about the Sentinel world simulation program. Or rather, simulations simultaneously simulated to simulate simulation possibilities. (Maybe I should write Dr. Suess kids books for the New Normal kids of tomorrow?) In other words, they can plan back up plans for back up plans. But as the simulations grow more accurate and Sentinel learns from it's mistakes, the simulations will grow in accuracy, and the machine could very well become pre-cognitive. Yes that's an outlandish proposition, but so was flying three hundred years ago, or a thinking computer for that matter. You can't dismiss tomorrow's possible advances in science as fiction when today's science was yesterday's science fiction.
ORDO AB CHAO meaning ORDER OUT OF CHAOS.
Yes this can mean creating chaos in events to manufacture order. But on a grand scale it also means to create order in the chaos of reality. It means controlling information before it becomes viral and takes on a life of it's own, becoming an out of control pandemic.
And we don't have a pandemic that's being subjected to a narrative, do we?
Well now that you ask, let's see if I can show some more information to potentially break the sanctioned narrative.
I'm not going to lie, the level of control at this point is frightening, and it's so obvious that it's become normal and nobody notices. It's background noise. A hum. A constant current of conflicting information to increase cognitive confusion to camouflage current events.
After and before the 2008 cyberattack and financial collapse, we had the Great Recession, which began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, which makes it the longest recession since World War II.
And then there was this.
2009 swine flu pandemic. Analysis of the genetic divergence of the virus in samples from different cases indicated that the virus jumped to humans in 2008, probably after June, and not later than the end of November, likely around September 2008.
Unlike most strains of influenza, the Pandemic H1N1/09 virus does not disproportionately infect adults older than 60 years; this was an unusual and characteristic feature of the H1N1 pandemic.
The 2009 swine flu pandemic was an influenza pandemic that lasted for about 19 months, from January 2009 to August 2010, and was the second of two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first being the 1918–1920 Spanish flu pandemic).
Cyber Attack. Economic Crash. Keep Calm and Carry On starts. Great Recession ends. Pandemic.
The timing looks awfully suspicious, doesn't it? It looks rather strategic, doesn't it?
So Let's Keep Calm and Contagion On.
Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, OBE, JP, FRCP (born August 21, 1947) is a Chinese-Canadian physician, who served as the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) delegating the People's Republic of China[4] for 2006–2017. Chan has previously served as Director of Health in the Hong Kong Government (1994–2003), representative of the WHO Director-General for Pandemic Influenza and WHO Assistant Director-General for Communicable Diseases (2003–2006). In 2014, Forbes ranked her as the 30th most powerful woman in the world. In early 2018 she joined the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
And she was followed by another Director General.
Tedros "was supported by a bloc of African and Asian countries, including China, which has considerable influence with those members" while "the US, UK and Canada... lent their support to... the British doctor David Nabarro." One observer called it "a really nasty" election.
There were allegations made of a cover up by the David Nabarro camp about a pandemic in Ethiopia, which were covered by the NY TIMES.
Does this put things in a little better perspective about recent events? President Trump pulls American funding from the WHO, Bill Gates increases funding becoming the number one source of revenue. In other words, it allows the political message to be made, while also removing American legal oversight, yet still leaving or increasing control over the WHO in the hands of Bill Gates.
Recall the DoD advisory board with all the tech gurus? Wasn't the absence of Bill Gates or Microsoft strange? What about all the disparaging statements by Bill towards the President? Yes all of this could be real, but it could also very well be staged. Don't forget about the central point in Unrestricted Warfare, you hide your attacks and confuse the enemy. And the same in Full Spectrum Dominance, you control all the sources of information because you fight in a Gray Zone, where you leave the enemy unbalanced and unsure of factual information.
This is why it's next to impossible to get a handle on all the information, it's by design. We don’t know who's responsible for what. But it's becoming increasingly clear that we are already in a war.
To our way of thinking, a planned stock market crash, a computer virus attack, making the currency exchange rate of an enemy country erratic, and spreading rumors on the Internet about the leaders of an enemy country can all be thought of as new concept weapons.
"Unrestricted Warfare": Military/Civilian Distinctions Break Down "Unrestricted Warfare" means that any methods can be prepared for use, information is everywhere, the battlefield is everywhere, and that any technology might be combined with any other technology, and that the boundaries between war and non-war and between military and non-military affairs has systematically broken down.
Qiao and Wang called for a “revolution in war,” which combines conventional with non-war actions, and military with non-military actions. In an alarming opinion, they stated that war may include a blend of stealth planes and cruise missiles, along with biochemical, financial, and terrorist attacks.
Lawfare • Lawfare, or political action through transnational or non-governmental organizations can effect a policy change that would be impossible otherwise. Because of the international nature of the modern world and activism, it is much easier for nation-states to affect policy in other nation-states through a proxy. Network warfare • One of the better-known alternatives in this book is the idea of attacking networks. Networks are increasingly important in not only data exchange but also transportation, financial institutions, and communication. Attacks that disable networks can easily hamstring large areas of life that are dependent on them for coordination. One example of network warfare would be shutting down a network that supplies power. If there is a significant failure in the power grid caused by the attack, massive power outages could result, crippling industry, defense, medicine, and all other areas of life. Chinese writings over the past two decades have amplified that cross integration of biotechnology, engineering, and information technology will become the new strategic doctrine for future military revolutions, as cited in the October 2015 edition of the Liberation Army Daily. These writings consistently put forth that weaponization of living organisms shall become a reality in the future, with non-traditional combat styles taking center stage. Zhang is a retired general and former president of China’s National Defense University. In the book, Zhang argues that modern biotechnological development is gradually showing strong signs characteristic of an offensive capability, including the possibility of employing “specific ethnic genetic attacks”.
Again, think of the timelines. Think back to one nation in 1989 squashing the revolution. Think about rare earth elements. Was this blackmail to force trade with the west? Are there indicators that point to a greater catastrophe and a war for dominace and survival of culture? There are ample examples in Western National Security papers indicating this. And there are also Asian Security papers indicating the same, which we will look at in a later post.
I do caution you not to interpret all events from a position of West vs East and only the East is attacking the West. Keep in mind that all strategic moves are being made to confuse the adversary and to confuse and demoralize each other's citizens, and also to build up tension amongst their own population in order to increase support for the war. Because the west has been indoctrinated with justifiable wars for human rights, they can't suddenly try to convince us to wage war in a fight over declining resources, the majority would insist on trying to find a solution to the problem for humanity, not to exterminate some humanity as a solution.
In our leaders eyes, we are the problem to the solution. Our leaders believe that we can't handle the truth. This is partly why so many events are still being hidden. This is also why the Keep Calm and Carry On propaganda started. And this is why biological warfare is so vital, because you it's almost impossible to discern whether it's a real virus or a labmade virus by the public. You can guess, but unless your government declared it tentional act of war, how would you truly know. And even when they do, how can you know with one hundred percent certainty that it was? You won't. Want an example? Alright, let's go.
The U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) yesterday revealed charges against two Chinese nationals for their alleged involvement in a decade-long hacking spree targeting dissidents, government agencies, and hundreds of organizations in as many as 11 countries. The 11-count indictment, which was unsealed on Tuesday, alleges LI Xiaoyu (李啸宇) and DONG Jiazhi (董家志) stole terabytes of sensitive data, including from companies developing COVID-19 vaccines, testing technology, and treatments while operating both for private financial gain and behalf of China's Ministry of State Security. "China has now taken its place, alongside Russia, Iran and North Korea, in that shameful club of nations that provide a safe haven for cyber criminals in exchange for those criminals being 'on call' to work for the benefit of the state, [and] to feed the Chinese Communist party's insatiable hunger for American and other non-Chinese companies' hard-earned intellectual property, including COVID-19 research," said Assistant Attorney General John C. Demers, who leads the DoJ's National Security Division.
Hacking companies to get Covid-19 research. A shameful club of nations (How dare you! - Greta Thunberg). Hard earned intellectual property. Those are some pretty emotional trigger (you're triggering me!) words being used, aren't they? Mentioning hard earned intellectual property sounds a lot like making money, doesn't it? But the pandemic is a planet wide catastrophe, isn't it?
Billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates called for COVID-19 drugs and an eventual vaccine to be made available to countries and people that need them most, not to the "highest bidder," saying relying on market forces would prolong the deadly pandemic.
May 04, 2020 • The European Commission pledged $1bn to fund research on a vaccine. Norway matched the European Commission's contribution, and France has pledged €500m, as have Saudi Arabia and Germany. Japan pledged more than $800m. The US and Russia did not take part. China, where the virus originated in December, was represented by its ambassador to the European Union. Of the money raised, $4.4bn will go on vaccine development, some $2bn on the search for a treatment and $1.6bn for producing tests, the EU said. Mr Johnson, who spent three nights in intensive care with Covid-19, was to confirm the UK's pledge of £388m for vaccine research, testing and treatment during the conference. Along with the European Commission, the conference is being co-hosted by the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway and Saudi Arabia. "If we can develop a vaccine that is produced by the world, for the whole world, this will be a unique global public good of the 21st Century," they added.
One of these things is not like the other, one of these things is not the same. I understand the controversy over the WHO. But does it make sense to fight over Covid-19 intellectual property rights when the world is at stake? Yes, I know hacking is bad - Edward Snowden makes new claims about American hacking in China. - but so is hiding research and making money off of people's lives when researching goes faster when it's open sourced.
So why would they hide research from China? Why did accusations of China hiding the pandemic start almost immediately a few months ago, just after China shared the mapped Covid-19 genome?
January 11, 2020 • Chinese researchers reveal draft genome of virus implicated in Wuhan pneumonia. Scientists praise decision to make date public; U.S. group sets out to produce live virus from the sequence. Source Here
China shares the information. The American Government accuses China of not sharing it fast enough and hiding information. Then they start a spy ring round up to stop them from stealing information. So why would China have to steal the information if We’re All in This New Normal Together to Flatten the Curve?
July 24, 2020 • As part of a broader offensive against India and Western rivals, Pakistan and China have entered a secret three-year agreement to expand potential bio-warfare capabilities, including several research projects related to the deadly agent anthrax, the Klaxon reported citing multiple intelligence sources. China has been criticised for handling of coronavirus pandemic with speculations that disease could have emerged from Wuhan Institute of Virology, though most experts have discounted the theory. According to the report authored by Anthony Klan, the same lab has signed the covert deal with Pakistan military's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO), to collaborate research in "emerging infectious diseases" and advance studies on the biological control of transmitted diseases.
Propaganda doesn't have to be fake to be propaganda, it only has to shape your outlook and behavior. And let's face it, in the face of an environmental collapse, issues of morality won't be a priority for the majority. Empty stomachs accept the truth, full stomachs fall for lies.
So let's just Keep Calm and Carry On.
July 23, 2020.
Justice Department official: Chinese consulate in Houston ‘went well over the line’ The State Department ordered Beijing to shutter the facility earlier this week.
The USA closes the embassy in Houston, and then the very next day the headline runs about the biological weapons co-operation between China and Pakistan, intended to be used against the West and India. Strange timing, isn’t it? Don't article's of that nature take a while to compile? Maybe not if you only quote unnamed intelligence sources. (I've led an interesting life. I'm like the Greek Forest Gump. I've met "famous" and influential people all my life. From Lawrence Taylor of the NY Giants to Alfonso Ribeiro (Carlton Banks from Fresh Prince, and he did the Carlton dance). Not a big deal to me at all, other than experiencing that Hypernormal unreal feeling of seeing the person and not the digital image - and yes it's actually disorienting at first - is what I end up talking about to others. But the other story I talk about is meeting a journalist from the Globe and Mail some twenty years ago, and he warned me to never trust an unnamed source. He insisted that the source was the person standing closet to him who answers a question for the journalist.
Journalist #1 - Hey, do you agree that Sasquatch is real and being kept hidden by the government?
Journalist #2 - Yes I do.

1 - Unnamed intelligence sources claim Sasquatch is being kept hidden by the government.

This narrative about China might be true, or it might not be true. I just want you to be aware of the narrative and how it shapes your perceptions.
There is one final part of this Gray Zone New Normal Narrative left.
UC Davis said Tang left her job as a visiting researcher in the Department of Radiation Oncology in June. Her work was funded by a study-based exchange program affiliated with China’s Ministry of Education, the university said in a statement. Agents have said they believe Tang sought refuge at the consulate after they interviewed her at her home in Davis on June 20. The FBI has been interviewing visa holders in more than 25 American cities suspected of hiding their ties to the Chinese military.
The FBI has been interviewing visa holders across more than 25 American cities. Let that sink in. Swim in it so you don’t drown in the endless distractions that are being thrown at you. The politics are a stage play, and at some point something will happen that will stop the bickering and unite them, and most of the West too. It's only a matter of time now. This is why we witness but don't see the subtle insinuations of ordinary acts being sinister.
In Houston, fire services were called after smoke was seen rising from the compound. US officials said staff, who were given 72 hours to leave the country, were burning documents in its grounds. A Republican senator claimed that the consulate, which covered several southern states, was an “espionage hub”.
Burning documents at a consulate? That never happens! They must be up to no good.
Classified documents and special equipment is to be destroyed according to State Department procedure or, in some instances, taken out (in the case of the evacuation of diplomats in 2014, some equipment not normally destroyed was taken from Libya to Tunisia). The flag will also be removed from the embassy. (Marines lowered the flag in Cuba when the embassy closed in 1961, then raised it again in 2015). The State Department did not immediately respond to a request for comment regarding what will happen to the embassy files, or what process the embassy staff will follow to get out of Caracas. Source Here.
Our news articles make it seek like the Chinese Consulate did something out of the ordinary by burning the documents. It's not. It's standard operating procedures. But what about the proof that they we're engaged in espionage? Proof? You don't need proof! Every single Embassy on the planet is engaged in espionage. That's reality.
www.washingtonpost.com Diplomatic Titles Often Used to Protect Intelligence Aides Source Here
The vast majority of the agency’s overseas officers are under what is known as “official cover,” which means they are posing as employees of another government agency. The State Department allows hundreds of its positions in embassies around the world to be occupied by CIA officers representing themselves as diplomats. A rarer and more dangerous job category is “nonofficial cover” — or “NOC” (pronounced knock) — in which CIA officers pose as employees of international corporations, as scientists or as members of other professions. Such covers tend to provide a plausible reason to work long periods overseas and come in contact with foreign nationals the agency wants to recruit. Source Here.
China Evil. China Evil. Repeat it enough and it become an accepted narrative. Is the paradigm shift necessary? TPTB think it is. But remember, this is geopolitics, there is no evil. There is just reality. And the reality is Russia, China, and the West, are positioning themselves for natural resource scarcity in the future. If you need greener pastures those pastures can't have a herd already living there, can they? So you spy, plot, and maneuver, all to be ready for the endgame.
Just China spying? Please.
October 27, 2013 • How NSA Spied on Merkel Cell Phone from Berlin. Source Here
Business as usual is always framed as unusual business when they need our engagement and outrage. Keep Calm and Propoganda On.
So should we Keep Calm and Carry On? That's a big fat nope. This is the New Normal, and over the next few posts I'll shake the tree more and show you how Keep Calm and Carry On stopped because the New Normal has started and the narrative has changed to alter our perceptions. You don’t start expelling illegal immigrants, trade wars, improve the emergency alert system, ramp up strategic anti-nuclear missle defense, and position military units worldwide in anticipation of repelling an invasion for no reason.
So the Chinese spy that was detained from the SF embassy? She worked at the University of California. So, you might ask, what's your point?
October 01, 2019 • UC now holds largest CRISPR-Cas9 patent portfolio Berkeley News. Source Here
CRISPR-Cas9. 2015. Bill Gates investment. Birdman Plauge Doctor Video. Ralph Baric discovers new coronavirus in bats can leap to humans. Gates pandemic warnings started. Chinese spy working at UC. How's the picture?
July 16, 2020 • The DNA-cutting proteins central to CRISPR-Cas9 and related gene-editing tools originally came from bacteria, but a newfound variety of Cas proteins apparently evolved in viruses that infect bacteria. The new Cas proteins were found in the largest known bacteria-infecting viruses, called bacteriophages, and are the most compact working Cas variants yet discovered — half the size of today’s workhorse, Cas9. “Adenoviruses are the perfect Trojan horse for delivering gene editors: You can easily program the viruses to reach almost any part in the body,” said Patrick Pausch, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, and in UC Berkeley’s Innovative Genomics Institute (IGI), a joint UC Berkeley/UCSF research group devoted to discovering and studying novel tools for gene editing in agriculture and human diseases. Source Here
Adenoviruses are the perfect Trojan Horse. Gene Drive Editing and CRISPR-Cas9.
December 15, 2017 • The technology is called gene drive. Scientists introduce a genetic defect that can spread rapidly through a population, causing it to die off. A few years ago gene drive was just a theory. But it became a near-reality almost overnight once the CRISPR gene editing system made it easier for scientists to do precise genetic modification. The recently discovered CRISPCas9 system functions like molecular scissors, allowing scientists to modify the DNA of humans and other species with unprecedented ease. Now many groups — including the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, an agency of the U.S. military — are developing gene drive technology aimed at solving a variety of problems including wiping out disease-carrying insects and eradicating invasive mammals like rodents and rabbits. That brings us to the great email dump last week. Scientists around the world were stunned when dozens of their personal emails suddenly appeared in the public domain — released by an environmental activist who obtained the documents through U.S. freedom of Information laws. The emails reveal a Canadian public relations firm, Emerging Ag Inc., recruiting scientists to participate in an online UN gene-drive forum and notifying them when to jump into the discussions. The emails do reveal a co-ordinated effort to mobilize scientists to defend their research turf, an effort that is funded by deep philanthropic pockets. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has paid $1.6 million US to Emerging Ag for a three-year program to manage the scientists' network, including setting up a website and organizing meetings. The network is so new they haven't decided on an official name, but the working title is the Gene Drive Outreach Network.
Oh Bill. You're so far Ahead of the Curve, aren't you? Hiring a PR firm to shape public opinion, putting the spotlight on you and away from the AI military biowarfare industrial complex.
Keep calm and let us do the research: that's essentially the message from the new group. Source Here
Keep Calm. Nice use of language CBC. I cant help but think it was intentionally used to indicate the modern New Normal propoganda that's currently underway.
February 14, 2020 • Why Bill Gates thinks gene editing and artificial intelligence could save the world. Source Here
And this is what I mean when I say that's it all connected. All of it. If the effort of getting ahead of the curve is wasted on focusing on individual pieces of the puzzle without seeing where they connect to other pieces, the big picture will never be seen.
Keep Calm and Carry On memes. Military looks to open up meme warfare division. Power Geopolitics at the World Health Organization. Pandemic. Spy games. Spy worked at UC. UC has majority of CRISPR-Cas9 patents. Bill Gates wants gene drive editing. Public relations firms. AI and Gene Drive Editing can save the world.
Nothing is random when you prepare for an environmental collapse that will happen at random.
Keep Calm and Carry On? No thanks. There's a storm coming.
Heads up and eyes open. Talk soon.
submitted by biggreekgeek to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.08.10 17:08 Superfan234 Electoral Crisis in Bolivia: The Complete story

In a previous post, I answered the most commons questions and misconceptions about the Conflict in Bolivia
With this post my objective is much more ambitious: To explain once and for all , the Bolivian Crisis to Neoliberal
It is a massive task, for sure. But I think the final work lives up to the expectations
Of course, massive thanks to u/thebolivianguy. He helped me a ton with details I was honestly not aware of, give his inside thoughts from inside the country, and brought almost all the main News Sources you will find in this post. Kudos to him for the support!
What role did the OAS have? Was it really the United States the ones who ousted Evo Morales? Was there really Electoral manipulation? How the Opposition took over the country?
Let's find out ;)

The Original Sin: The Controversial Plebiscite of 2016

If I need to give a specific date to understand the turmoil events of 2019, without a doubt we must go back to 2016, to the Plebicite of February 21. In this Plebiscite, Evo Morales Aima called on the Bolivian population to vote for a constitutional reform allowing him to be elected for the 2020-2025 presidential term. By a tight margin (51% against re-eleccion vs 49% in favor) Bolivians decided to prevent another term for Evo Morales in 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, after 13 years of thunderous electoral victories, had to accept defeat. Until then, he enjoyed unparalleled popularity in Bolivia, keeping the country with a stable economy [*] and together with his Party (MAS) he controlled all the powers of the State. It took him a few days, but reluctantly, he ends up accepting his loss
However, a few months later, Morales would appeal to the Constitutional Court for a second opinion. In 2017, in a highly controversial ruling, the Court considered the prohibition of indefinite re-election, limited the Humans Rights of the President. As a result, Evo could stand for re-election as many times as he wished to[*]
The ruling was naturally strongly criticized by the opposition. And, in hindsight , it became the biggest political mistake Evo Morales has ever made

The Consequences of Indefinite Re-Election

For more than a decade, Evo enjoyed great popularity and appreciation by varied sectors of the population. Not only the "common people", but also Bolivian businessmen, who viewed with good eyes the stability and economic growth Bolivia had experienced, something extremely rare in that country. These times of prosperity had reduced the Opposition to small unpopular group, with multitude of internal conflicts
But extremely partisan decision of the Constitutional Tribunal allowed Opposition politicians, who shared little to nothing with each other, to sit together and defend themselves against a common enemy. In time, civil communities would join the political efforts, and together, they would be able to unleash protests and demonstrations throughout the country, capitalizing on the political discontent of the Bolivian People
The OAS, on the contrary, would not condemn the decision of the Constitutional Court. On the contrary, the president of the OAS expressly traveled to Bolivia to support the indefinite election of Evo Morales. [*]. For those who have heard of the Bolivian Crisis in mass media this may sound unusual, but in fact there is a quite convincing explanation. However, let's not beat around this bush just yet
I am going to be extremely specific: There are 3 central points crucial to understand the Bolivian crisis (I'm going to list them because we will constantly return to them)
Evo's wishes for indefinite re-election resulted in three critical problems
  • 1) Political Union of the Opposition: Parties and Civil Communities that shared little or nothing with each other, put aside their political differences in order to defeat Evo
  • 2) General mistrust of the People: The Rebirth of the Dictatorships of Venezuela (~ 2017) and Nicaragua (~ 2018), became a gloomy omen for Bolivians. Both regimes were consolidated through electoral farces. So the proper tally of the votes became absolutely crucial
  • 3) Antagonism with Latin America: A big majority of LATAM Leaders, for the most part, was seeking a change of government in Venezuela at any cost. Bolivia's fierce support to Venezuela, could be a fundamental obstacle to overthrowing Maduro
The combination of these 3 factors, added to the generalized perception of Evo Morales as a Corrupt Politician, was the explosive mixture that led to the general fear of electoral manipulation in Bolivia
The massive protests, and this is important to remember, were not to support a particular opposition candidate. They were against the (justified) fear that Evo installed in the Bolivian population about falling into a Crisis similar to the one Venezuela was living

Days before the Election

By early October 2019, the political tension could be feel in the air. Three years of attempts to avoid Evo's re-election had failed legally, but electorally, they had succeeded in an unprecedented way Since 2005, Morales had won by landslides all the presidential elections he had participated. In 2005, he had beaten Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29%. In 2009 he beat Manfred Reyes 64% vs 27%, in 2014 he beat Samuel Doria 61% vs 24. Evo's popularity, in principle, was virtually unbeatable
But a partial defeat in the municipal elections of 2015[*] and mainly his defeat in the 2016 Plebiscite, raised doubts about his ability to win a new presidential elections
Problems were nothing to shrug off. Morales presented in 2019 the same Political Project he had for over 13 years: a Conservative-Social Democracy with an indigenous mix. Against him, Carlos Mesa, his main political rival, presented an almost identical project, with the additional “plus” of not having 13 years of corruption scandals and worn-out Populism accompanying Evo
Citizens who felt comfortable with Evo's Bolivarian model could feel confident Mesa have the vision to continue the years of prosperity, and at the same time, detoxify the institutions of the State from rampant corruption. It was, by all accounts, a great opportunity for political change in the country
As the Election approached, the opinion polls became increasingly grim for Evo. He was projected to reach only 37% of the vote in the First Round, far from the ~ 60% he achieved in the 2014 elections[*]
To top it off, Chi Hyun and Oscar Ortiz (the other two strong opposition candidates) appear, in the event of a Ballot, closer to supporting Carlos Mesa than Evo. Capturing those votes in the Second round, would be a very complex task
Although the situation might look bleak for the Government there was, in fact, a chance to win. In Bolivia, the candidate who obtains more than 40% of the votes (and exceeds the second candidate by 10%) can be elected as winner in the First Round
This way, Evo marginally win in the First round, thus avoiding a second Ballot. Of course, the fact Evo could win by a margin of ~ 1%, only increased the social pressure on the correct tall of votes The Opposition Politicians and Media also echoed this concern, and months before the elections, they were already calling for citizens to protect the results, accusing the Government of fabricating an electoral fraud [*][*][*]

Elections Day

The day everyone was waiting for finally arrived. At the Sunday of October 20, citizens of the 9 Departments of Bolivia were called to vote at the polls, without any mayor complications at first
After a relatively quiet morning, Bolivians prepared for the results. In Bolivia, the electoral court supervises three different types of counting
  • Boca de Urna(*): quite unaccurate, but reflects the immediate moments after the vote
  • Quick Count (TREP): which allows to know approximate results in a few hours [*]
  • Final Count: official results, which usually take a couple of days
It was clear that the winner would be defined by mere decimals. And possibly, the last votes would come from rural areas, where Evo remained as great favorite, but little polls to clarity for how much At night, Bolivians were nervously waiting for the final results of the count. In mere minutes, they would know the results of 4 years of political conflict. And suddenly, without any prior notice, the Electoral Tribunal stops the vote count
The opposition's alarms quickly went off, and fiercely, they asked the electoral court an explanation for the delay
The Electoral Tribunal, without giving it much importance to it, give vague and really confusing reasons to excuse itself[*]. Although at the beginning it was attributed (informally) to technical problems, the Electoral Tribunal ended up reporting that stopping the quick count was "planned in advance" [*] and that the final results would eventually be known
If this process was really planned or not, the doubt was enough to light the fuse of the discontent and mistrust the entire country was experiencing. Quickly, citizens began to protest at the headquarters of the Electoral Tribunal [*] , demanding the vote counting be resumed
The OAS, the European Union and the United States expressed their concern about the suspension of the count, and sent statements requesting explanations from the government[*]

Days after the election

On Monday October 21, the Electoral Tribunal resumed the vote counting. To the discontent of the Opposition (and the joy of the Government), the final toll was clear: Morales had won in the first round, and MAS maintained control of both the Upper House and the Lower House of the Congress
This only infuriated the Opposition population, who saw the change in trend and Government secrecy as a clear attempt to manipulate the data. Protests began in front of the country's Electoral Tribunal [*]
In Potosi, the outrage became evident, once the Electoral Tribunal, which initially gave the victory by exit to Mesa by 69%, had reduced this percentage to 34% in the final count[*]
That day, a viral video began to circulate on the Internet. In the footage, you can see the Union Leader Marco Pumari forcing his entry into a warehouse, where hundreds of ballots were (secretly) stored. I will transcribe Pumari's impressions:
Supposedly a few blocks from here, the Electoral Tribunal, already began scrutinizing. They are already counting our votes. What are they counting! If the votes of the Potosinos are Here! What are the authorities counting there?
If this is what they are doing in the Capital of Potosi... imagine what they are doing in Rural Areas! That’s why Evo Morales has indicated us to "wait for the vote of the rural areas." He even thanked the Potosinos for our votes! To whom Evo should thank, it is those corrupt members of the Electoral Tribunal, who are going against their own Population!
This is unacceptable. It's a crime! Today the police tried to prevent us from entering this compound. The police, protecting these corrupts! No Notary wants to come here and to take note of the situation. Not a single one! We will go to file a complaint in Justice Court. But who knows if they will listen to us, since Justice is also in the hands of the Government!
I now I ask to you: What is left for us to do, as The People?
The video broadcast by Marco Pumari enraged the population of Potosí, who ended it up setting on fire the Electoral Tribunal. But this was just one of many videos that, through social networks, questioned the actions of the Government and the Electoral Tribunal in counting the votes
When night came, after several hours of unanswered protests, the violence began to grow. The headquarters of the Electoral Courts of Sucre was also burned in retaliation. [*]. Protests in favor and against Morales begin to occur throughout the country
Luis Fernando Camacho, a businessman and social leader from the Bolivian East side, would call for an indefinite strike from Santa Cruz[*], one of the most important cities in Bolivia, jeopardizing the social and economic sustainability of the government
The Catholic Church would also show its concern, warning signs of fraud in the presidential election [*]
Meanwhile, a group of radical Indigenous women, known as The Red Ponchos, threatened the opposition with taking up arms to defend Evo and his Government [*] The same threats were made by the Coca Leaf Leaders, who historically had shown firm support for the president
At the beginning of November, the die was cast. A major conflict was approaching, and both sides anticipated that bloodshed was inevitable. It is in these moments of maximum tension, the OAS makes it’s appearance

The OAS Intervention

The OAS, is the International Community who brings together all the Latin American countries. It’s also the faithful reflection of the apathy Hispanic countries profess to international conflicts.
The OAS, in theory, could possess great political powers on the American Continent, perhaps even Worldwide relevance. However, the prevailing indifference in Latin America (even present in great powers like Brazil and Mexico) has limited OAS to become the great defender of the Status quo in the Region. Moral or immoral? Truth is, Hispanic countries lack interest in the internal politics of their neighbors, and rarely intervene in them regardless of the seriousness of the matter at hand
Morales, of course, already knew this. He himself had participated in OAS for 13 years, and he knew they could take months to obtain a final report and, most likely, they were only going to limit themselves to sustaining the Status Quo
Opposition leaders were also aware of this, so they did everything it was possible to de-legitimize the statistical value of the OAS. They knew that the pacifist position of the American countries in favor of Morales would de-legitimize the protests, and they might stop the Protest completely Therefore, if they wanted to take down Evo, they had to act as soon as possible, before the call for calm from the OAS demoralized the protesters

The Bolivian Revolution

The conflict was on. Evo Morales was plan was to ask the population to calm down, and wait for OAS Report on the Elections. The opposition sought to extend the protests to the rest of the country, and make Evo fall before the OAS calmed down the protests
The Manifestations, of course, did not wait. From the East, Fernando Camacho was leading the businessmen and wealthy class of Santa Cruz, from the West, the Union Leader Marco Pumari, leading the working and indigenous masses of Potosi
It might seem curious that none of the Opposition presidential candidates led the protests. But you must remember that, with their re-election attempts, many civil groups had previously organized in the event of a Fraud situation. Although these communities came from very disparate political groups, the strong opposition to Evo was enough to keep them united as one
These civil groups proved to have more support than the opposition parties themselves, and turned out to be much more difficult for the Government to contain
One of the great advantages of these communities was they were not associated (yet) with the corruption that characterized Bolivian politics, and their only defined political program was to oust Evo. This would make their most popular representatives, Camacho and Pumari, more relatable and easy-to-follow leaders. For his part, Evo Morales resorted to two main methods to win: A) To exercise repression with his shock trops and B) A lot of Whining
On the one hand, Evo could use his shock forces to violently attack the opposition, with not much International repercussions. This attacks reach their peak at infamous Siege to Santa Cruz [*]. On the other hand, Evo sought to give the appearance of a coup before the international community, and promoted the image “USA is attacking Bolivia”

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

On November 8, Ethical Hacking, the auditing company hired by the Electoral Tribunal itself to follow the election process, Delivers their final report[*]. This report, was nothing short of devastating for the Government
They revealed that, at 7:30 p.m. on Election Day, a large amount of data began to be received from an Unknown Server, which caused constant errors in the electoral app of the TREP. Looking for explanations, Ethical Hacking goes to the Members of the Committee, who admited it was them who accessed the electoral system, but only out of "curiosity" to see the Data (Let's remember, it was approximately at this time, the Electoral Tribunal suddenly stopped publishing vote counts)
But this turned out to be just the tip of the Iceberg. Over the next five days, Ethical Hacking recorded not one or two, but 12 breaches of the electoral system's protocol. The reason for breaking the protocols were quite varied, but the final consequences were the same: The Electoral Acts could have been modified at will by the Members of the Electoral Tribunal, since there was no supervision by an external entity at those times
The reaction in Bolivia did not wait. The fact the very company hired by the Government blamed the Electoral Tribunal for invalidating the results, would be funny, if it wasn't so tragic
That same day, tired of being used against the protesting population, police forces in Cochamaba, Sucre and Santa Cruz mutinied against the Government[*]A few days later, they were followed by police forces from La Paz
The protesters, now with the protection of the local police, grew to Dantesque levels. They finally had enough numbers and support to take over the country

The betrayal of the OAS

Evo Morales was cornered. His popular support was both surppassed in numbers and organization by opposition forces. The national police were unwilling to repress the protesters, and His personal strike groups didn't have the weapons nor the planning to fight the dissident population over the country
In a desperate attempt to regain control of Bolivia, Morales fired the members of the Electoral Tribunal, blaming them for the errors in the process, and promised to organize new a electoral process [*]However, this act of good faith ended it up having no value, because on November 10, against all expectations, the OAS publishes an "executive report" confirming the final Electoral tall had mayor issues, probably some sort of manipulation, effectively invalidating the results. They suggested it would be better make the whole elections again
The response of Bolivian politics was one of total disbelief. Not only the OAS had advanced it's reports against the Government's desires[*], it also openly ruled against Evo, using a language that practically encouraged the dissident to continue their Protest
It was perhaps at that moment that Evo Morales finally understood he was betrayed. His fervent support for a favorable OAS ruling had become a double-edged sword. A weapon the opposition would undoubtedly use against him
At the same time, Senior Officials of the Bolivian Army met in Secret to decide what they could do to regain control of the country. From what we now known, High Officers were concerned of the increasing anarchy the country was facing, and feared at this rate, it would be impossible to prevent bloodshed between opposite factions[*]Therefore, Williams Kaliman, the commander-in-chief of the Bolivian Armed Forces, asked the president to resign, in order to regain political stability in the country.
Evo Morales, after 13 years of government and almost 20 days of fierce struggle, was forced to present his resignation as President. Bolivian Protesters, had won
submitted by Superfan234 to neoliberal [link] [comments]


2020.08.09 21:30 Superfan234 bolivia testo 3

In a previous post, I answered the most commons questions and misconceptions about the Conflict in Bolivia
With this post my objective is much more ambitious: To explain once and for all , the Bolivian Crisis to Neoliberal
It is a massive task, for sure. But I think the final work lives up to the expectations
Of course, massive thanks to u/thebolivianguy. He helped me a ton with details I was honestly not aware of, give his inside thoughts from inside the country, and brought almost all the main News Sources you will find in this post. Kudos to him for the support!
What role did the OAS have? Was it really the United States the ones who ousted Evo Morales? Was there really Electoral manipulation? How the Opposition took over the country?
Let's find out ;)

The Original Sin: The Controversial Plebiscite of 2016

If I need to give a specific date to understand the turmoil events of 2019, without a doubt we must go back to 2016, to the Plebicite of February 21. In this Plebiscite, Evo Morales Aima called on the Bolivian population to vote for a constitutional reform allowing him to be elected for the 2020-2025 presidential term. By a tight margin (51% against re-eleccion vs 49% in favor) Bolivians decided to prevent another term for Evo Morales in 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, after 13 years of thunderous electoral victories, had to accept defeat. Until then, he enjoyed unparalleled popularity in Bolivia, keeping the country with a stable economy [*] and together with his Party (MAS) he controlled all the powers of the State. It took him a few days, but reluctantly, he ends up accepting his loss
However, a few months later, Morales would appeal to the Constitutional Court for a second opinion. In 2017, in a highly controversial ruling, the Court considered the prohibition of indefinite re-election, limited the Humans Rights of the President. As a result, Evo could stand for re-election as many times as he wished to[*]
The ruling was naturally strongly criticized by the opposition. And, in hindsight , it became the biggest political mistake Evo Morales has ever made

The Consequences of Indefinite Re-Election

For more than a decade, Evo enjoyed great popularity and appreciation by varied sectors of the population. Not only the "common people", but also Bolivian businessmen, who viewed with good eyes the stability and economic growth Bolivia had experienced, something extremely rare in that country. These times of prosperity had reduced the Opposition to small unpopular group, with multitude of internal conflicts
But extremely partisan decision of the Constitutional Tribunal allowed Opposition politicians, who shared little to nothing with each other, to sit together and defend themselves against a common enemy. In time, civil communities would join the political efforts, and together, they would be able to unleash protests and demonstrations throughout the country, capitalizing on the political discontent of the Bolivian People
The OAS, on the contrary, would not condemn the decision of the Constitutional Court. On the contrary, the president of the OAS expressly traveled to Bolivia to support the indefinite election of Evo Morales. [*]. For those who have heard of the Bolivian Crisis in mass media this may sound unusual, but in fact there is a quite convincing explanation. However, let's not beat around this bush just yet
I am going to be extremely specific: There are 3 central points crucial to understand the Bolivian crisis (I'm going to list them because we will constantly return to them)
Evo's wishes for indefinite re-election resulted in three critical problems
  • 1) Political Union of the Opposition: Parties and Civil Communities that shared little or nothing with each other, put aside their political differences in order to defeat Evo
  • 2) General mistrust of the People: The Rebirth of the Dictatorships of Venezuela (~ 2017) and Nicaragua (~ 2018), became a gloomy omen for Bolivians. Both regimes were consolidated through electoral farces. So the proper tally of the votes became absolutely crucial
  • 3) Antagonism with Latin America: A big majority of LATAM Leaders, for the most part, was seeking a change of government in Venezuela at any cost. Bolivia's fierce support to Venezuela, could be a fundamental obstacle to overthrowing Maduro
The combination of these 3 factors, added to the generalized perception of Evo Morales as a Corrupt Politician, was the explosive mixture that led to the general fear of electoral manipulation in Bolivia
The massive protests, and this is important to remember, were not to support a particular opposition candidate. They were against the (justified) fear that Evo installed in the Bolivian population about falling into a Crisis similar to the one Venezuela was living

Days before the Election

By early October 2019, the political tension could be feel in the air. Three years of attempts to avoid Evo's re-election had failed legally, but electorally, they had succeeded in an unprecedented way Since 2005, Morales had won by landslides all the presidential elections he had participated. In 2005, he had beaten Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29%. In 2009 he beat Manfred Reyes 64% vs 27%, in 2014 he beat Samuel Doria 61% vs 24. Evo's popularity, in principle, was virtually unbeatable
But a partial defeat in the municipal elections of 2015[*] and mainly his defeat in the 2016 Plebiscite, raised doubts about his ability to win a new presidential elections
Problems were nothing to shrug off. Morales presented in 2019 the same Political Project he had for over 13 years: a Conservative-Social Democracy with an indigenous mix. Against him, Carlos Mesa, his main political rival, presented an almost identical project, with the additional “plus” of not having 13 years of corruption scandals and worn-out Populism accompanying Evo
Citizens who felt comfortable with Evo's Bolivarian model could feel confident Mesa have the vision to continue the years of prosperity, and at the same time, detoxify the institutions of the State from rampant corruption. It was, by all accounts, a great opportunity for political change in the country
As the Election approached, the opinion polls became increasingly grim for Evo. He was projected to reach only 37% of the vote in the First Round, far from the ~ 60% he achieved in the 2014 elections[*]
To top it off, Chi Hyun and Oscar Ortiz (the other two strong opposition candidates) appear, in the event of a Ballot, closer to supporting Carlos Mesa than Evo. Capturing those votes in the Second round, would be a very complex task
Although the situation might look bleak for the Government there was, in fact, a chance to win. In Bolivia, the candidate who obtains more than 40% of the votes (and exceeds the second candidate by 10%) can be elected as winner in the First Round
This way, Evo marginally win in the First round, thus avoiding a second Ballot. Of course, the fact Evo could win by a margin of ~ 1%, only increased the social pressure on the correct tall of votes The Opposition Politicians and Media also echoed this concern, and months before the elections, they were already calling for citizens to protect the results, accusing the Government of fabricating an electoral fraud [*][*][*]

Elections Day

The day everyone was waiting for finally arrived. At the Sunday of October 20, citizens of the 9 Departments of Bolivia were called to vote at the polls, without any mayor complications at first
After a relatively quiet morning, Bolivians prepared for the results. In Bolivia, the electoral court supervises three different types of counting
  • Boca de Urna(*): quite unaccurate, but reflects the immediate moments after the vote
  • Quick Count (TREP): which allows to know approximate results in a few hours [*]
  • Final Count: official results, which usually take a couple of days
It was clear that the winner would be defined by mere decimals. And possibly, the last votes would come from rural areas, where Evo remained as great favorite, but little polls to clarity for how much At night, Bolivians were nervously waiting for the final results of the count. In mere minutes, they would know the results of 4 years of political conflict. And suddenly, without any prior notice, the Electoral Tribunal stops the vote count
The opposition's alarms quickly went off, and fiercely, they asked the electoral court an explanation for the delay
The Electoral Tribunal, without giving it much importance to it, give vague and really confusing reasons to excuse itself[*]. Although at the beginning it was attributed (informally) to technical problems, the Electoral Tribunal ended up reporting that stopping the quick count was "planned in advance" [*] and that the final results would eventually be known
If this process was really planned or not, the doubt was enough to light the fuse of the discontent and mistrust the entire country was experiencing. Quickly, citizens began to protest at the headquarters of the Electoral Tribunal [*] , demanding the vote counting be resumed
The OAS, the European Union and the United States expressed their concern about the suspension of the count, and sent statements requesting explanations from the government[*]

Days after the election

On Monday October 21, the Electoral Tribunal resumed the vote counting. To the discontent of the Opposition (and the joy of the Government), the final toll was clear: Morales had won in the first round, and MAS maintained control of both the Upper House and the Lower House of the Congress
This only infuriated the Opposition population, who saw the change in trend and Government secrecy as a clear attempt to manipulate the data. Protests began in front of the country's Electoral Tribunal [*]
In Potosi, the outrage became evident, once the Electoral Tribunal, which initially gave the victory by exit to Mesa by 69%, had reduced this percentage to 34% in the final count[*]
That day, a viral video began to circulate on the Internet. In the footage, you can see the Union Leader Marco Pumari forcing his entry into a warehouse, where hundreds of ballots were (secretly) stored. I will transcribe Pumari's impressions:
Supposedly a few blocks from here, the Electoral Tribunal, already began scrutinizing. They are already counting our votes. What are they counting! If the votes of the Potosinos are Here! What are the authorities counting there?
If this is what they are doing in the Capital of Potosi... imagine what they are doing in Rural Areas! That’s why Evo Morales has indicated us to "wait for the vote of the rural areas." He even thanked the Potosinos for our votes! To whom Evo should thank, it is those corrupt members of the Electoral Tribunal, who are going against their own Population!
This is unacceptable. It's a crime! Today the police tried to prevent us from entering this compound. The police, protecting these corrupts! No Notary wants to come here and to take note of the situation. Not a single one! We will go to file a complaint in Justice Court. But who knows if they will listen to us, since Justice is also in the hands of the Government!
I now I ask to you: What is left for us to do, as The People?
The video broadcast by Marco Pumari enraged the population of Potosí, who ended it up setting on fire the Electoral Tribunal. But this was just one of many videos that, through social networks, questioned the actions of the Government and the Electoral Tribunal in counting the votes
When night came, after several hours of unanswered protests, the violence began to grow. The headquarters of the Electoral Courts of Sucre was also burned in retaliation. [*]. Protests in favor and against Morales begin to occur throughout the country
Luis Fernando Camacho, a businessman and social leader from the Bolivian East side, would call for an indefinite strike from Santa Cruz[*], one of the most important cities in Bolivia, jeopardizing the social and economic sustainability of the government
The Catholic Church would also show its concern, warning signs of fraud in the presidential election [*]
Meanwhile, a group of radical Indigenous women, known as The Red Ponchos, threatened the opposition with taking up arms to defend Evo and his Government [*] The same threats were made by the Coca Leaf Leaders, who historically had shown firm support for the president
At the beginning of November, the die was cast. A major conflict was approaching, and both sides anticipated that bloodshed was inevitable. It is in these moments of maximum tension, the OAS makes it’s appearance

The OAS Intervention

The OAS, is the International Community who brings together all the Latin American countries. It’s also the faithful reflection of the apathy Hispanic countries profess to international conflicts.
The OAS, in theory, could possess great political powers on the American Continent, perhaps even Worldwide relevance. However, the prevailing indifference in Latin America (even present in great powers like Brazil and Mexico) has limited OAS to become the great defender of the Status quo in the Region. Moral or immoral? Truth is, Hispanic countries lack interest in the internal politics of their neighbors, and rarely intervene in them regardless of the seriousness of the matter at hand
Morales, of course, already knew this. He himself had participated in OAS for 13 years, and he knew they could take months to obtain a final report and, most likely, they were only going to limit themselves to sustaining the Status Quo
Opposition leaders were also aware of this, so they did everything it was possible to de-legitimize the statistical value of the OAS. They knew that the pacifist position of the American countries in favor of Morales would de-legitimize the protests, and they might stop the Protest completely Therefore, if they wanted to take down Evo, they had to act as soon as possible, before the call for calm from the OAS demoralized the protesters

The Bolivian Revolution

The conflict was on. Evo Morales was plan was to ask the population to calm down, and wait for OAS Report on the Elections. The opposition sought to extend the protests to the rest of the country, and make Evo fall before the OAS calmed down the protests
The Manifestations, of course, did not wait. From the East, Fernando Camacho was leading the businessmen and wealthy class of Santa Cruz, from the West, the Union Leader Marco Pumari, leading the working and indigenous masses of Potosi
It might seem curious that none of the Opposition presidential candidates led the protests. But you must remember that, with their re-election attempts, many civil groups had previously organized in the event of a Fraud situation. Although these communities came from very disparate political groups, the strong opposition to Evo was enough to keep them united as one
These civil groups proved to have more support than the opposition parties themselves, and turned out to be much more difficult for the Government to contain
One of the great advantages of these communities was they were not associated (yet) with the corruption that characterized Bolivian politics, and their only defined political program was to oust Evo. This would make their most popular representatives, Camacho and Pumari, more relatable and easy-to-follow leaders. For his part, Evo Morales resorted to two main methods to win: A) To exercise repression with his shock trops and B) A lot of Whining
On the one hand, Evo could use his shock forces to violently attack the opposition, with not much International repercussions. This attacks reach their peak at infamous Siege to Santa Cruz [*]. On the other hand, Evo sought to give the appearance of a coup before the international community, and promoted the image “USA is attacking Bolivia”

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

On November 8, Ethical Hacking, the auditing company hired by the Electoral Tribunal itself to follow the election process, Delivers their final report[*]. This report, was nothing short of devastating for the Government
They revealed that, at 7:30 p.m. on Election Day, a large amount of data began to be received from an Unknown Server, which caused constant errors in the electoral app of the TREP. Looking for explanations, Ethical Hacking goes to the Members of the Committee, who admited it was them who accessed the electoral system, but only out of "curiosity" to see the Data (Let's remember, it was approximately at this time, the Electoral Tribunal suddenly stopped publishing vote counts)
But this turned out to be just the tip of the Iceberg. Over the next five days, Ethical Hacking recorded not one or two, but 12 breaches of the electoral system's protocol. The reason for breaking the protocols were quite varied, but the final consequences were the same: The Electoral Acts could have been modified at will by the Members of the Electoral Tribunal, since there was no supervision by an external entity at those times
The reaction in Bolivia did not wait. The fact the very company hired by the Government blamed the Electoral Tribunal for invalidating the results, would be funny, if it wasn't so tragic
That same day, tired of being used against the protesting population, police forces in Cochamaba, Sucre and Santa Cruz mutinied against the Government[*]A few days later, they were followed by police forces from La Paz
The protesters, now with the protection of the local police, grew to Dantesque levels. They finally had enough numbers and support to take over the country

The betrayal of the OAS

Evo Morales was cornered. His popular support was both surppassed in numbers and organization by opposition forces. The national police were unwilling to repress the protesters, and His personal strike groups didn't have the weapons nor the planning to fight the dissident population over the country
In a desperate attempt to regain control of Bolivia, Morales fired the members of the Electoral Tribunal, blaming them for the errors in the process, and promised to organize new a electoral process [*]However, this act of good faith ended it up having no value, because on November 10, against all expectations, the OAS publishes an "executive report" confirming the final Electoral tall had mayor issues, probably some sort of manipulation, effectively invalidating the results. They suggested it would be better make the whole elections again
The response of Bolivian politics was one of total disbelief. Not only the OAS had advanced it's reports against the Government's desires[*], it also openly ruled against Evo, using a language that practically encouraged the dissident to continue their Protest
It was perhaps at that moment that Evo Morales finally understood he was betrayed. His fervent support for a favorable OAS ruling had become a double-edged sword. A weapon the opposition would undoubtedly use against him
At the same time, Senior Officials of the Bolivian Army met in Secret to decide what they could do to regain control of the country. From what we now known, High Officers were concerned of the increasing anarchy the country was facing, and feared at this rate, it would be impossible to prevent bloodshed between opposite factions[*]Therefore, Williams Kaliman, the commander-in-chief of the Bolivian Armed Forces, asked the president to resign, in order to regain political stability in the country.
Evo Morales, after 13 years of government and almost 20 days of fierce struggle, was forced to present his resignation as President. Bolivian Protesters, had won
submitted by Superfan234 to test [link] [comments]


2020.08.07 23:02 Superfan234 bolivia crisis test 1

La Crisis Política en Bolivia ha generado una enorme cantidad de opiniones y comentarios por todo Reddit
En un anterior post, me remiti a responder escuetamente las preguntas mas comunes sobre este Conflicto
Ahora, en este Effortpost, les explicaré con lujo de detalles, como yo (y la población Boliviana) vivió el dia a dia la Crisis Electoral del 2019
Que papel tuvo la OAS? Fue realmente Estados Unidos quien tumbo a Evo? Realmente hubo manipulación Electoral? Quien Gano las elecciones?
Vamos alla!

The Original Sin: El Controversial Plebicito de 2016

Si tenemos que dar una fecha especifica para entender los turmoil events de 2019, sin duda debemos remontarnos al Plebicito del 21 de Febero de 2016. En este Plebicito, Evo Morales Aima llamo a la población Boliviana a votar una reforma consitucional que le permitiría re-elegirse para el periodo presidencial 2020-2025. Por un ajustado margen (51% por el No vs 49% por el Si) los Bolivianos decidieron impedir una nueva re-eleccion Evo Morales en 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, tras 13 años de estruendosas victorias electorales, tenia que aceptar la derrota. Hasta ese entonces, gozaba una popularidad sin igual en Bolivia, manteniendo al país con una economía estable [*] y junto a su partido (el MAS) controlaba todos los poderes del Estado. Le tomo unos días, pero a regañadientes, termina por aceptar su derrota
No obstante, unos meses después, Evo recurriría al Tribunal Constitucional por una segunda opinión. En 2017, en un fallo sumamente controversial, el Tribunal estimo que la prohibición de re-eleccion indefinida limitaba los Derechos Hunamos de Evo morales, por lo que este , si asi lo quería, podía presentarse a la re-eleccion cuantas veces quisiese [*]
El falllo fue, naturalmente, ferozmente criticado por la oposición. Y, en perspectiva, se convirtió en el mayor error politico que Evo Morales haya cometido jamás

Consecuencias del la re-eleccion indefinida

Hasta entonces, Evo había gozado de gran popularidad y aprecio por sectores muy variados de la Población. No solo “el pueblo llano”, sino también de los empresarios bolivianos, que veían con buenos ojos la estabilidad y crecimiento económico que vivía Bolivia, algo sumamente raro en ese país. Estos tiempos de prosperidad, habían reducido a la Oposición a cúpulas pequeñas, que pasaban su tiempo enfrascados en pleitos internos
La indudable decisión partidaria del TC, permitió que políticos de Oposición, que poco o nada compartían unos a otros, se sentaran juntos a defenderse frente a un enemigo común. Con el tiempo, Comunidades civiles se sumarian a los esfuerzos políticos, y juntos serían capaces de desencadenaría protestas y manifestaciones a través de todo el país, capitalizando el descontento político del Pueblo Boliviano
La OAS, por el contrario, no condenaría la decisión del Tribunal Constitucional. Sino por el contrario, el presidente de la OAS viajo expresamente a Bolivia a apoyar la elección indefinida de Evo Morales. [*] Para los que hayan escuchado de la Crisis Boliviana en otros medios masivos esto les puede sonar insolito, pero de hecho hay un explicación bastante convincente. Sin embargo, no nos vayamos por las ramas aun
Voy a ser lo más concreto posible: Hay 3 puntos centrales que son requisitors cruciales para enteder la Crisis Boliviana. Me voy a dar el tiempo de enumerarlos porque voy a volver constantemente a ellos
Los deseos de re-eleccion indefinida de Evo se tradujeron en tres problemas criticos
  • 1) Unión política de la Oposición: Partidos y Comunidades Civiles que poco o nada compartían entre sí, dejaron de lado sus diferencias políticas con tal de derrotar a Evo
  • 2) Desconfianza generalizada del Pueblo: El Renacer de las Dictaduras de Venezuela (~2017) y Nicaragua (~2018) , se convirtió en un sombrío augurio para los Bolivianos. Ambos regímenes se consolidaron por medio de farsas electorales. Por lo que el correcto conteo de los votos, se volvio absolutamente crucial
  • 3) Antagonismo con LatinoAmerica: LATAM, en su gran mayoría, buscaba un cambio de Gobierno en Venezuela a como dé lugar. El apoyo de Bolivia a Venezuela, podría resultar en un obstáculo fundamental para derrocar a Maduro
La combinacion de estos 3 factores, sumado a la percepción generalizada de Evo Morales como un personaje Corrupto, fue la mezcla explosiva que llevo al temor generalizdo de manipulación electoral en Bolivia Las protestas masivas, y esto es importante recordarlo, no fueron para apoyar a un candidato opositor en particular, sino contra el temor (justificado) que Evo instalo en población boliviana sobre caer en una Crisis similar a la Venezolana

Days before the Election

A inicio de Octubre de 2019, la tensión politica en Bolivia podía sentirse en el aire. Tres años de intentos para evitar la re-eleccion de Evo habían fracasado en lo Legal, pero electoralmente, habían triunfado de manera asombrosa
Desde 2005, Morales había vencido by landslide en todos los comicios presidenciales que había participado. En 2005 habia vencido a Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29% , en 2009 vencio a Manfred Reyes por 64% vs 27% y en 2014 supero a Samuel Doria por un 61% vs 24. La popularidad de Evo, en principio, se veía invatible. Pero una parcial derrota en las elecciones municipales de 2015 [*] y principalmente su derrota en el Plebicito de 2016 , había sentado dudas sobre capacidad su capacidad de vencer en nuevos comicios presidenciales
Y las razones no eran menores. Evo se presentó el 2019, como siempre, con su proyecto Social Democrata Conservador con tientes indigenistas. Frente a él, Carlos Mesa, su principal rival político, presentaba un proyecto casi identico, pero sin los 13 años de escándalos de corrupción y Populismo desgastado que acompañaban a Evo
Los ciudadanos que se sentían a gusto con el modelo Bolivariano de Evo, podían sentir confianza que Mesa podía continuar los años de prosperidad, y al mismo tiempo, desintoxicar las instituciones del Estado saturadas de Corrupción. Era, a todas luces, una gran oportunidad para el cambio político en el país A medida que se acercaba la Eleccion, las encuenstas de opinión fueron cada vez más tétricas para Evo. Llegando solo un 37% de la votación en Primera Vuelta, se encontraba muy lejos del ~60% que había conseguido en elecciones del 2014 [*]
Para rematar, Chi Hyun y Oscar Ortiz (los otros dos candidatos fuertes de oposición) se presentaban en caso de Balotaje, más cercanos de apoyar a Carlos Mesa que a Evo, lo que hacia captar los votos de esas bancadas en Segunda vuelta, una tarea aun más compleja
Aunque la situación podía parecer lugrube, Existia sin embargo una posibilidad de vencer. En Bolivia, el candidato que obtenga mas del 40% de los votos y supere por 10% al segundo, es elegido vencedor en Primera Vuelta
Esto podría convertir a Evo marginalmente como vencedor en Primera vuleta, y asi lograr evitar un Balotaje. Por supuesta, el hecho que Evo pudiera resultar vencedor por un margen de un ~1%, no hacia mas que incrementar la presion social sobre el correcto recuento de los votos.
Los Politicos y Medios Opositores, también hicieron eco de esta preocupación, y meses antes de los elecciones, ya estaban llamando proteger los resultados, acusando al Gobierno de estar gestando un posible Fraude electoral[*][*][*]

The Day of the Election

El dia que todos esperaban, finalmente llego. El Domingo 20 de Octubre ciudadanos de los 9 Departamente de Bolivia fueron llamados a votar en las Urnas, sin que en principio se presentaran mayores complicaciones
Tras una mañana relativamente tranquila, los bolivianos se prepararon para los resultados de Boca de Urna y los del Conteo Rápido. A las ~19:00 horas El Tribunal Electoral informo que, con un 85% de los votos ya analizados, tanto la Boca de Urna, como el conteo rápido, permitían a Evo superar la barrara del 40%. Sin embargo, la diferencia de votos con Mesa se mantenía entre 9.3% y 6.9%, lo que le era insuficiente para ganar en Primera Vuelta
Estaba claro que el ganador seria definido por decimas. Y que los últimos votos saldrían de las áreas rurales, donde Evo se mantenía como gran favorito, pero como poca claridad si era suficiente para dar vuelta el resultado
Cuando todos los ojos y oídos de los bolivianos estaban pendiente de los resultados finales del conteo. A minutos del momento culmine de 4 años de conflicto político, el Tribunal Electoral, sin previo aviso, detiene el escrutinio de votos
Las alarmas de la oposición se encendieron rápidamente, y enardecidos, pidieron explicaciones a la corte electoral por el retraso en el recuento
La corte electoral, sin darle mucha importancia, comenzó a dar razones vagas, y realmente confusas para excusarse. Si bien al comienzo se atribuyo (informalmente) a problemas técnicos, el Tribunal Electoral termino por informar que detener el conteo rápido estaba “planificado de antemano”[*] y que los resultados finales, se sabrían eventualmente
Si este procesos estaba realmente estaba planificado o no, la duda fue suficiente para encender la mecha del descontento y la desconfianza que vivía todo el País. Rápidamente, ciudadanos comenzaron a protestar en las sedes del Tribunal Electoral[*], exigiendo que el conteo de votos se reanude

The days after the election

El Domingo 21 de Octubre, el Tribunal Electoral retomo el conteo de votos. Para descontento de la Oposición (y la alegría del Gobierno) los datos eran contundentes: Morales había vencido en primera vuelta, y el MAS mantenía el control tanto de la Camara Alta como de la Camara Baja
Esto no hizo más que enardecer en furia a la población opositora, que vio en el cambio de tendencia y secretismos del Gobierno, un claro intento de manipular los datos. Protestas comenzaron frente a los Tribunal Electorales del país [*]
En Potosi, La indignación se hizo evidente, una vez que el Tribunal Electoral , que en principio dio la victoria por boca de urna a Mesa por un 69%, había reducido este porcentaje a 34% en el conteo final [*]
Llegada la noche, tras varias horas de protestas sin respuesta, la violencia comenzó a crecer. Las sedes del Tribunales Electorales de Sucre y Potosi son quemadas en represalia.[*]. Protestas a favor y en contra de Morales comienzan a darse por todo el terriotrio nacional
La OEA, Union Europea y Estados Unidos mostraron su preocupación por la suspensión del conteo, y enviaron comunicados pidiendo explicaciones al gobierno[*]
Ese dia, un video viral comenzó a cirucular por Internet. En este, se podía ver al Dirigente Sindical Marco Pumari forzando su entrando a una bodega donde centenares de cajas de votos se encontraban guardadas. Transcribo las impresiones de Pumari:
Supuestamente al frente, el en Tribunal Electoral, ya están escrutando. Ya se esta haciendo el conteo de nuestros votos. Y que estan contando! Si aquí estan los votos de los Potosinos! ¿Que están contando las autoridades?
Si esto es lo que están haciendo en la Capital de Potosi…imaginanese que están haciendo en las áreas rurales! Por eso Evo Morales ha indicado que tenemos que “esperar el voto de las zonas rurales”. Hasta nos agradece los votos a los Potosinos! A quien debe agradecer Evo, es a esos corruptos del Tribunal Electoral, que hoy estan yendo en contra de la Poblacion!
Esto es inaceptable. Es un Delito! Hoy la policía intento impedir que entráramos a este recinto. La policía, resguardando a estos corruptos. Ningún Notario quiere venir en este momento para tomar acta de la situación. ¡Ninguno! Vamos a ir en este momento a presentar una denuncia ante la Justicia. Y quien sabe si nos harán caso, ya que la Justicia también esta en manos del Gobierno!
Les pregunto: ¿Que nos queda a nosotros por hacer, como Pueblo?
El video difundido por Marco Pumari enardeció a la población potosina, termino por incendiar el Tribunal Electoral. Pero este fue solo uno de muchos videos que, por las redes sociales, cuestionaban el actuar del Gobierno y el Tribunal Electoral en el conteo de los votos
Luis Fernando Camacho, un empresario y líder social Cruceño, convocaría un paro indefinido desde Santa Cruz, una de las ciudades más importantes de Bolivia, poniendo en jaque la sustentabilidad social y económica del gobierno
La iglesia católica, también mostraría su preocupación, advirtiendo indicios de fraude en la elección presidencial [*]
Mientras tanto, un grupo de Indigenas radicales, conocidos como los Ponchos Rojos, amenazaban a la oposición con tomar armas para defender a Evo y su Gobierno[*]. Misma amenazas hicieron los lideres Cocaleros, que históricamente, se habían caracterizado por su firme apoyo al presidente
A inicios de noviembre, la suerte ya estaba echada. Un conflicto mayúsculo se acercaba, y ambos bandos preveían que el derramamiento de sangre era inevitable. Es en estos momentos de máxima tensión, es que tenemos la intervención de la OAS

La Intervencion de la OAS

La OAS, comunidad que reúne a los los países LatinoAmericanos, es reflejo fiel de la apatía que profesan los países Hispanos a los conflictos Internacionales
La OAS, en teoría, podría poseer grandes poderes políticos en el Contiente Americano, quizás hasta relevancia a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, la desidia imperante en LatinoAmerica, incluso presente en grandes potencias como Brazil y Mexico, la ha limitado a maneternse como el gran defensor del Estatus quo en la Region. Moral o inmoral? Lo cierto es que los países Hispanos raramente intervenen en la política interna de sus vecinos, sin importar la gravedad del asunto que acontesca
Morales, naturalmente, ya contaba con esto. El mismo había participado por 13 años en esta organización, y conocía que la OAS podría llegar a tomar meses para obtener un dictamen final, y que, muy probablemete, solo se iba a limitar a sostener el Status Quo
Los líderes de oposición, por el contrario, hicieron todo lo posible por desligitimar el valor estadístico de la OAS. Ellos sabían que la posición pacifista de los países americanos en favor de Evo Morales iba a desligitimar la protestas, e incluso, hasta podrían detenerlas por completo
Por tanto, si querían tumbar a Evo, debían actuar lo más pronto posible, antes que el llamado a la calma de la OAS desmoralizara a los manifestantes

La Revolucion Boliviana

El conflicto estaba en marcha. Evo Morales iba a pedir calma a la población, esperando el dictamente de la OAS que, muy probablemente, le sentaría a su favor. La oposición buscaba extender las protestas al resto del pais, y hacer caer a Evo antes que la OAS apasiguara las protestas
Los Manifestaciones, por supuesto, no se hiceron esperar. Por el Este, Fernando Camacho liderando a los empresarios y clase acomodada de Santa Cruz, por el Oeste, el Lider Sindicalista Marco Pumari, liderando a la masa trabajadora e indígena de Potosi
Podría parecer curioso que ninguno de los candidatos presidenciales de la oposición liderara las protestas. Pero deben recordar que, con sus intentos de re-eleccion, muchos grupos civiles se habían organizado previamente en caso de ocurrir una situación de Fraude. Si bien estas comunidades provenían de grupos muy dispares, la fuerte oposicion a Evo fue suficiente para mantenerlos unidos politicamente
Estos grupos civiles, demostraron tener más alcance que los propios partidos de oposicion, y resutaron ser mucho más difíciles de contener para el Gobierno
Una de las grandes ventaja de estas comunidadas fue que no estaban salpicadas (aún) por la corrupción que caracterizaba a la Politica Boliviana y su único programa político definido, era estar en contra de Evo. Esto convertiría a sus representantes más populares, Camacho y Pumari, en lideres relatables y faciles de seguir
Por su parte, Evo Morales recurrio dos metodos para vencer: ejercer represión y bueno...dar lastima. Por un lado, usuaba sus fuerzas de choque para atacar violentamente a la oposición, siendo el punto culmine el intento de Siege a Santa Cruz[*]. Por el otro, buscaba dar la aparencia de Golpe de Estado ante la comunidad internacional [*]
Las fuerzas de choque de Evo contaban con armas ciertamente rudimentarias, pero muy peligrosas, siendo la Dinamita la más infame entre ellas. [*] [NSFL Link] No pasaría mucho tiempo para que los heridos se multiplicaran, y los primeros muertos comenzaran a caer
No obstante, la población boliviana (con una valentía realmente admirable), no se dejó doblegar. Una por una, las regiones bolivianas se levantaban en protesta, demostrando que, tanto que en animo y en cantidad, representaban la mayoría del país. Despues de uno días de struggles, el Gobierno se da cuenta que le iba a ser imposible detener las protestas con violencia, o con propaganda

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

El 8 de noviembre, Ethical Hacking, la empresa auditora contratada por el propio Tribunal Electoral para seguir el proceso de elección, Entrega su informe final[*]. Este informe, it was nothing short of devastating
Revelaron que, a las 19:30 del dia de las elecciones, desde un Server Desconocido, se comenzaron a recibir una gran cantidad de datos, que producían errores constantes la aplicación electoral. Buscando explicaciones, Ethical Hacking acude a los Vocales, quienes admiten que fueron ellos quienes accedieron al sistema electoral desde un server desconocido, pero por “curiosidad” de ver los datos (Recordemos que fue aproxidamadamente esta hora, que el Tribunal Electoral subitamente dejo de publicar el conteo de votos)
Pero esto resulto ser solo la punta del Iceberg. Durante los siguiente cinco dias, Ethical Hacking registro no uno ni dos, sino 12 brechas a protocolo del sistema electoral. El motivo para romper los protocolos resultaba variado, pero las consecuencias finales eran la misma: Las Actas electorales, podian haber sido modificadas a voluntad los Vocales del Tribunal Electoral, ya que no exitio supervisión alguna de un ente externo
La reacciónes en Bolivia no se hiceron espearar. Que la propia empresa contratada por el Gobierno inculpe al Tribunal Electoral de alterar los resultados, hubiese sido comico, si no fuese tan trágico
Ese mismo dia, ya hartos de ser usado contra la poblacion manifestante, fuerzas policiales en Cochamaba, Sucre y Santa Cruz se amotinaron contra el Gobierno [*]. Unos dias más tarde, les seguirían fuerzas policiales de La Paz
Las protestas, ahora contando con proteccion de la Policia local, crecieron a niveles Dantescos. Finalmente, lograron reunir la fuerza sufiencete para tomar el control del país

La traición de la OAS

Evo Morales se encontraba acorralado. Su apoyo popular era superado en número y organización por las fuerzas opositoras. La policía nacional no estaba dispuesta a reprimir a los manifestantes, y sus grupos de choque no poseían ni el armamento ni la planificación para combatir a los población disidente
En un intento desesperado por recuperar el control del país, despidió a los vocales del tribunal electoral, culpándolos a ellos de los errores en proceso, y prometió organizar nuevos comicios electorales[*]. Sin embargo, este acto de buena fe, no tendria valor alguno, ya que el mismo 10 de noviembre, contra todo pronostico, la OAS publica un “informe ejecutivo” donde confirma que los resultados electorales estaban viciados de nulidad, por lo que seria prudente realizar elecciones de nuevo
La respuesta de la politica boliviana fue de incredulidad total. No solo la OAS había adelantado sus informe, en contra de los designos del Gobierno[*], sino que fallaron abiertamente en contra de Evo, utilizando un lenguaje que practicamente animaba a los manifestantes a continuar las protestas
Fue quizas en ese momento, que Evo Morales finalmente comprendio que había sido traicionado. Su apoyo ferviente a un dictamen de la OAS, se había convertido en un arma de doble filo. Un arma que sin duda, la oposición ocuparia en su contra
Paralelamente, Altos Oficiales del Ejercito Boliviano se reunieron para decidir que podían hacer para recobrar el control del país. Por lo que sabemos, los Oficiales estaban preocupados de que, si la anarquia seguia creciendo, iba a ser imposoble evitar un derramamiento de sangre[*]. Por tanto, Williams Kaliman , el comandante en jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia, pidio al presidente que renunciara, con el fin de poder recobrar la estabilidad political al país
Evo Morales, tras 13 años de Gobierno y casi 20 dias de lucha encarnizada, finalmente había perdido todo sosten politico. Unas horas más tarde, este presentaria su renuncia a los Medios de Comunicacion
submitted by Superfan234 to test [link] [comments]


2020.08.06 12:55 Reddit-STD-4-FREEDOM Document Exposes New US Plot To Overthrow Nicaragua’s Elected Socialist Government, Again.

Document Exposes New US Plot To Overthrow Nicaragua’s Elected Socialist Government, Again.

A newly released document exposes a US government operation to overthrow the democratically elected socialist government in Nicaragua.

The plot is administered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), a regime-change vehicle that uses the pretense of “humanitarian aid” to advance Washington’s aggressive foreign-policy interests.
The document (PDF) details the creation of a new “task order” called Responsive Assistance in Nicaragua (RAIN) and its plan for “Nicaragua’s transition to democracy” – a euphemism for removing the leftist Sandinista Front for National Liberation (known commonly by the Spanish acronym FSLN) from power.
In the pages, the US government agency uses hardline neoconservative rhetoric, referring to Nicaragua’s elected government as the “Ortega regime,” and making it clear that Washington wants to install a neoliberal administration that will privatize the economy, impose neoliberal reforms, and purge all institutions of any trace of the leftist Sandinista movement.
The USAID regime-change scheme states openly that one of its top “mission goals” is for Nicaragua to “transition to a rules-based market economy” based on the “protection of private property rights.”
The document concludes by calling for the future US-installed regime in Nicaragua to “rebuild institutions” and “reestablish” the military and police; to “dismantle parallel institutions” that support the Sandinista Front; and to persecute FSLN leaders through “transitional justice measures” – in other words, a thorough purge of the Sandinista movement to prevent it from ever returning to power.
In case it was not explicit enough that Washington’s goal was regime change, the 14-page USAID document employed the word “transition” 102 times, including nine times on the first page alone.
USAID declared its intention to assist in what could be an “orderly transition” or a “sudden transition without elections,” which is clear code for a coup. At the same time, it acknowledged that Nicaragua’s right-wing opposition is divided and has little chance of winning the upcoming 2021 national election.

https://preview.redd.it/c36321qc4df51.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=6b0129c06092fc134e462f53b06e6b3de3e2f7c0

USAID oversees another far-right coup attempt in Latin America

Ever since the Sandinista Front returned to power in Nicaragua through democratic elections in 2006, Washington has been hellbent on trying to topple it.
In 2018, the Donald Trump administration supported a violent coup attempt in Nicaragua, in which far-right gangs took over neighborhoods and paralyzed the country with bloody barricades known as tranques. The US-backed insurgents unleashed a reign of terror, killing and injuring hundreds of Sandinista activists and state security forces; marking the homes of leftist activists, ransacking and burning some down; and torturing and threatening supporters of the elected government.
When the 2018 putsch attempt failed, the US government resorted to a raft of aggressive tactics to bring down Nicaragua’s leadership. In the past two years, the Trump administration has imposed several rounds of suffocating sanctions on the small Central American nation, often with bipartisan support in Congress, not a word of opposition from the Democratic Party, and cheers from the billionaire-funded human rights industry.
The US Agency for International Development was instrumental in the Donald Trump administration’s violent US coup attempts against Venezuela’s elected government in 2019, working directly with the Department of Defense. USAID has poured hundreds of millions of dollars funding the US regime-change efforts against the leftist Chavista government, and has bankrolled the Trump-backed coup regime of Juan Guaidó.
USAID has always functioned as a CIA cutout and soft-power arm for Washington. But under the Trump administration, it has kicked its coup efforts in Latin America into hyper drive.
In April 2020, USAID was taken over by de facto director John Barsa, a hardline Republican businessman, Trump ally, and son of anti-communist Cuban immigrants. In coordination with Secretary of State and former CIA Director Mike Pompeo, Barsa has turned USAID into a blunt weapon of regime change, openly financing putsch efforts against the socialist governments of Cuba, Venezuela, and Nicaragua.

US govt’s Democracy International posts job listing for USAID coup liaison in Nicaragua

The Grayzone contacted USAID to ask confirmation that the document detailing its plans for a political “transition” in Nicaragua was authentic. The agency did not respond.
We were able, however, to gather evidence demonstrating the document’s legitimacy. The pages spelling out the regime-change plot employ precisely the same language and phrases as a job listing that was posted in late July by another US government-funded organization, Democracy International. In fact, the USAID document appears to be a more detailed job description for this post.
Democracy International stated in its listing on LinkedIn that it was seeking a Nicaraguan national in the capital of Managua to work as a “Senior Level Technical Expert – Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance to provide technical and programmatic support for USAID/Nicaragua’s Responsive Assistance in Nicaragua (RAIN) Task Order.”
Directly echoing the USAID document, the Democracy International job listing said that the “purpose of the Task Order is ‘to provide rapid, responsive, and relevant analytical and technical assistance that bridge USAID/Nicaragua’s efforts to create the conditions for, and support, a peaceful transition to democracy in Nicaragua.'”
This employee would help develop a “Transition Response Plan” – a regime-change scheme. (The brief job listing uses the term “transition” 10 times.)

https://preview.redd.it/sqgntuqf4df51.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=8776e8e274b0809b55257cddedbbb080aa2f4fa5
During the Cold War, coup coordination jobs like these would have been covert positions arranged with the CIA. In the freewheeling 21st century, however, this dirty regime-change work is carried out in the open, and advertised publicly on LinkedIn.
In case it wasn’t clear what this organization’s relationship was to USAID, it stated clearly on the post: “Democracy International, Inc. (DI) provides technical assistance, analytical services and project implementation for democracy, human rights, governance and conflict mitigation programs worldwide for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. State Department and other development partners.”
The job listing explicitly noted that the employee would work with the US government to provide “technical advice and country knowledge to GON (government of Nicaragua) ministries, USG (US government), and other stakeholders.”
Clearly, Democracy International is searching for a local point person to help carry out Washington’s regime-change efforts on the ground. The USAID document spelled out in detail the specific destabilization strategy that this liaison would follow.
The Grayzone called the Democracy International office with a request for comment on the LinkedIn job listing, the RAIN program, and the USAID document. A secretary would not let us speak with a specific member of the international team, simply saying, “We will inform the relevant people that we have received a call and I can give them their name and number and they will call you.”
The secretary asked if The Grayzone had a specific question to respond to. We said, “Local Nicaraguan media outlets have criticized USAID’s RAIN program, which is described in the Democracy International job posting, and characterized it as what appears to be an attempt at orchestrating a coup in the country. Can you respond to that characterization and do you think it is fair or unfair?” The Democracy International secretary replied, “Wow that’s so interesting. I will definitely let them know that you called.”

USAID’s regime-change plot to “transition” Nicaragua to a “market economy”

USAID’s Responsive Assistance in Nicaragua (RAIN) plan makes it clear that it is just a “short term bridge” to bring about regime change in the country, adding, “It is USAID’s intent to follow RAIN with longer-term programs, which will be determined as the crisis evolves.”
The regime-change plot outlined a “Mission Goal 2” in which “Nicaragua provides basis for future economic growth and increased trade through transition to a rules-based market economy based on transparent and accountable regulatory institutions, fiscal and monetary stability, respect for the rule-of-law and protection of private property rights.”
A supplementary “mission objective” emphasized USAID’s desire for a new neoliberal regime in Nicaragua that “works with the private sector to rebuild institutionality and an efficient and fair administrative bureaucracy” – in other words, mass privatization.
(Among the supposed crimes committed by the Nicaraguan “regime,” USAID lists “confiscation of properties.”)

https://preview.redd.it/gcga9wci4df51.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=d67c3e9db5e3b8fd9acd481a220110c1ae77e9a2
The USAID document outlined further US priorities for Nicaragua following a successful regime-change operation.
USAID’s “Mission Goal 3” would be “Security reform and rebuilding institutions” to “reestablish independent and professional security forces.” This is clearly a call for purging the police and military of Sandinista loyalists and bring in US trainers to establish a neocolonial-style security force, much like General Keith Dayton did in the occupied West Bank after Palestinian resistance was extinguished following the Second Intifada.
The “new government must act quickly to dismantle parallel institutions,” USAID adds. This is an indirect hint that Washington seeks to destroy the Sandinista Front, the Sandinista Youth, and other grassroots institutions that work with but are independent of the current socialist government. At its most severe, such a proposal could amount to an Augusto Pinochet-style purge of the left in Nicaragua.
“Additionally, it will need to implement transitional justice measures,” the USAID document added. This language, which has also been used in the proxy war on Syria, suggests the new neoliberal Nicaraguan government would be compelled to prosecute Sandinista Front officials, echoing the strategy the US-backed right-wing regimes in Bolivia and Ecuador have used to criminalize the left-wing parties that previously ruled those countries, hunt down former leftist leaders, and throw opposition officials in prison on dubious charges.
Another important part of the RAIN job would include recruiting native coup coordinators to help carry out the regime-change plot. USAID described this responsibility as follows: “Identification of potential Nicaraguan partners for rapid impact Grants Under Task Order to promote transition-related activities.”
The initiative allotted $540,000 in grants to entice Nicaraguan opposition groups into assisting the regime-change effort. (In the second-poorest country in the Western hemisphere, where the minimum wage is between $200 and $300 per month, half a million dollars is no petty sum.)
These funds would compliment the millions of dollars that USAID and the NED provide to right-wing Nicaraguan organizations every year.
The USAID document insisted that “Nicaragua’s immediate future remains highly uncertain.” Yet it acknowledged that the right-wing opposition is divided and unpopular, admitting that its leadership has not “coalesced around a party or candidate.”
Taking into account the weakness of the opposition heading into the 2021 national elections, the USAID plan outlines three scenarios for the overthrow of the socialist government and a “transition” to a US-friendly neoliberal regime.
The first is an “Orderly Transition scenario,” a far-fetched situation in which an unpopular US-backed opposition group somehow manages to win the election.
The second potential regime-change scenario is described as a “Sudden, Unanticipated Transition,” in “which one or more political crises, such as a snap or failed election, a presidential resignation, a major health crisis, a major natural disaster, or internal conflicts, lead to sudden regime crisis and transition either to an interim government or a new government.” This is the coup option, and USAID makes it clear that it would be more than happy with such a situation, and wants its RAIN liaison to prepare for it.
The third is a “Delayed Transition scenario,” in which the Sandinista government remains in power. In this case, USAID says that RAIN would help it destabilize the government in other ways and lead to future regime change.

https://preview.redd.it/pbljilbv4df51.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2080eea5757f4fe414ea1f2d1e3ea3a3c3f2853
But USAID didn’t want readers to get the wrong impression. It stressed in the document that its coup would be “gender sensitive in compliance” and based on “gender-informed analytical work.” (Although the women who make up the bulk of the Sandinista base would have to be excluded from Washington’s woke political “transition”).
The USAID document balanced its liberal language on gender with neoconservative rhetoric claiming, “Malign foreign influences, principally Cuba, Venezuela, and Russia, will continue to attempt to strengthen the corrupt autocratic Ortega regime.”

“What if Nicaragua did that in the United States?”

The existence of the USAID regime-change document was first reported on July 31 on the popular Nicaraguan radio and video show Sin Fronteras, hosted by William Grigsby Vado.
Grigsby, a prominent leftist media personality with a large following at the base of the Sandinista Front, condemned the US plot. “It is nauseating, the document; bearing to read it is difficult,” he said in outrage. “You have to have a strong liver to bear it. It pained me a lot.”
“What right does the US government have to contract a firm to subvert public order in any country?” Grigsby fumed. “It is a shameless intervention. Before they did it with the military; in this case they are doing it by subverting public order and funding political opposition activities. That is unacceptable!”
“What if Nicaragua did that in the United States, if for example Daniel Ortega said, ‘Hey, we’re going to help the protesters in Portland’?” he added. “But they reserve to themselves the right to act against the democratic institutionality of a country.”
Grigsby concluded by condemning “yankee imperialism” and slamming Nicaraguan opposition figures who are participating in this regime-change scheme.
“You all can do one of two things,” he thundered at the opposition. “Follow the rules of democracy, accept your defeat, and participate in the political game. Or you can simply remain as treasonists, hitmen, and traitors.”
The USAID document shows Washington pushing the latter option, and driving the country into a deepened conflict.
submitted by Reddit-STD-4-FREEDOM to conspiracy_commons [link] [comments]


2020.08.03 10:45 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 5/12: Botafogo

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 5/12: Botafogo (State: Rio de Janeiro), founded in 1904

State rivals: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense

Stadium: New (Nilton Santos) / Old (Caio Martins)

Mascot: Manequinho

Major achievements: 2 Brazilian Leagues (1968, 1995), 4 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (1962, 1964, 1966, 1998), 1 Copa Conmebol (1993)

State League titles: 21 (Against Flamengo's-36, Fluminense's-31, Vasco's-24)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO BOTAFOGO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
Botafogo, football's Anti-Hero greatest symbol
No other club in the history of football have - or probably will ever have - the unique status of Botafogo: the greatest Anti-Hero of football. Botafogo is one of the greatest football paradoxes.
It's almost an unanimity in the football world that the Brazilian 1958-70 period is the greatest era of Classic Footbal. And the Football World should thank Botafogo forever for this. From World Cup Ballon d'Or winners Didi and Garrincha in 1958 and 1962 to Brazil's topscorer and Silver Boot Jairzinho in 1970, Botafogo lived through the glorious 1960s with one of the greatest squads in the world. However, Botafogo never lived up to their name and their absurd lack of major trophies in front of such a golden history is baffling. But there's a reason Botafogo was named to the FIFA Club of the 20th Century ranking, at the 12th place.
The first decades of the Glorious
Botafogo Rowing club was founded in 1891 - which would make them the oldest club in Brazil. However, the Football Club was only founded in 1904, and Botafogo has chosen to adopt both birthyears officially, with the 1904 one being the most popular.
Brazil didn't have a National League until 1959, due to a lack of infrastructure and the bigness of the country. Our big teams were spread in different states, so they played State Leagues, where big rivalries and players were formed.
Until the late 1940s, Botafogo won 9 State Leagues, basically the same as Flamengo (10) and Vasco (8), in an era dominated by Fluminense (15). Highlights to their 4 consecutive title streak (1932 to 1935), with 49W-16D-7L-209GS-110GC overall, and to the star player Leonidas, present in the title of 1935.
The Golden Years (1950s and 1960s)
In the 1958 and 1962 World Cup finals, Botafogo had 8 players in the starting 11: Garrincha (2x), Didi (2x), Nilton Santos (2x), Zagallo (1962) and Amarildo (1962). In 1970, Jairzinho star shone alone, with 7 goals in 6 matches.
Brazil 1958 Club Brazil 1962 Club
3. Gylmar Santos 1. Gylmar Santos
4. Djalma Santos Portuguesa 2. Djalma Santos Palmeiras
15. Orlando Vasco 3. Mauro Santos
2. Bellini (c) Vasco 5. Zózimo Bangu
12. Nilton Santos Botafogo 6. Nilton Santos Botafogo
19. Zito Santos 8. Didi Botafogo
6. Didi Botafogo 4. Zito Santos
11. Garrincha Botafogo 7. Garrincha Botafogo
7. Zagallo Flamengo 21. Zagallo Botafogo
20. Vavá Vasco 19. Vavá Vasco
10. Pelé Santos 20. Amarildo Botafogo
Of all the 21 World Cup finals (1930-2018), in 9 of them the champions had 5 players or more from the same club in the starting 11, which are: 1934 Juventus (5), 1950 Peñarol (5), 1954 Kaiserslautern (5), 1962 Botafogo (5), 1974 Bayern (6), 1978 River Plate (5), 1982 Juventus (6), 2010 Barcelona (6) and 2014 Bayern (6).
Now, let's get to meet some of these Botafogo global icon players: Garrincha, Didi and Nilton Santos.
Garrincha (born 1933, played for Botafogo 1953-65)
The Bent-Legged Angel, the Joy's People. No matter how you call him, you can't deny Garrincha's greatness and impact in the football world.
Garrincha scored 245 goals in 612 apps in 12 years at Botafogo, but he wasn't really known for being a topscorer. Garrincha was the joy of football, an artist born with his right leg 6cm shorter than his left one, also with his left leg turned outwards and his right turned inwards, but who overcame all the difficulties his crippling brought him to become one of the greatest dribblers of the classic era of football, and a place among the greatest footballers of all time. He played in 3 World Cups, winning in 1958 and doing an amazing solo exhibition in the title of 1962 - when he won the WC Golden Ball, WC Golden Boot and the retrospective Ballon d'Or award.
He played as a right-winger, and basically loved to fool with his opponents, playing for fun, be it in his local vacational amateur team, for Botafogo or in the World Cup, he would play the same, and attract thousands of spectators in Brazil, crazy to enjoy his irreverence and irresponsibility and laugh at the defenders. In this 5mn video you have some of his highlights for Brazil and Botafogo, but if you're on a hurry, the most fun is definitely this one. With Pelé, he played 40 matches for Brazil, with 36W-4D, so they never lost when playing together. Garrincha himself played 60 matches for Brazil, scoring 17 goals, with 52W-7D and 1 loss, at the 1966 World Cup against Hungary (1-3), his last match for Brazil.
Didi (born 1928, played for Botafogo 1956-65)
The Maestro of Botafogo and Brazil, Didi played 313 matches for his club, scoring 114 goals. For Brazil, he played 75 and scored 21. The midfielder is known for winning the 1958 WC Golden Ball and being elected to the All-Star team of the 1958 and 1962 World Cups. He was a very elegant player, a free-kick specialist, notably for inventing the dry leaf kick, which means the ball takes an unattended trajectory, falling like a dry leaf when in direction of the goal. You can see lots of his passing skills in this 14mn video.
Nilton Santos (born 1925, played for Botafogo 1948-64)
Elected in 2000 the best left-back of all time by FIFA, Nilton Santos participated in 4 World Cups (1950, 1954, 1958, 1962). He was nicknamed The Encyclopedia, due to his deep football knowledge, for being a complete player, who revolutionized the left-back position by going constantly into attack, when he should only defend. He played 723 matches for Botafogo, scoring 11 goals. For Brazil, he played 75 and scored 3.
Garrincha, Didi, Nilton Santos and co. at Botafogo
Together at Botafogo, along with Manga, Zagallo, Quarentinha, Amarildo and Gerson, this generation won 5 State Leagues, 1 Brazilian League, 3 Rio-São Paulo Tournament and 3 times the unofficial but prestigious Triangular of Caracas.
Year Trophy 1st place 2nd place 3rd place
1957 State League Botafogo Fluminense Flamengo
1961 State League Botafogo Flamengo Vasco
1962 State League Botafogo Flamengo Fluminense
1962 Rio-São Paulo* Botafogo São Paulo Palmeiras
1964 Rio-São Paulo* Botafogo/Santos Palmeiras Flamengo
1967 State League Botafogo Bangu Fluminense
1967 Triangular of Caracas (Venezuela) Botafogo Barcelona (Spain) Peñarol (Uruguay)
1968 State League Botafogo Vasco Flamengo
1968 Brazilian League Botafogo Fortaleza Cruzeiro
1968 Triangular of Caracas (Venezuela) Botafogo Argentina NT Benfica (Portugal)
1970 Triangular of Caracas (Venezuela) Botafogo USSR NT Spartak Trnava (Czechoslovakia)
Botafogo could have won more, but unfortunately for them, Santos of Pelé existed in the exact same era, stopping them from winning the 1962 Brazilian League and knocking them off of the 1963 Copa Libertadores at the semi-final stage. Those were considered two of the best teams in the world, and the Botafogo vs. Santos, Garrincha vs. Pelé duel, the biggest and most charming Clássico in the world.
1970s-today
Well, when I said Botafogo is a huge football paradox, I wasn't lying. They went from being the base of the best Brazil of all time and one of the best clubs in the world, to become today the less victorious team of the Big12. That's why they can be called the Anti-Hero of football.
From 1968 to 1989, Botafogo didn't win a single trophy - their best results were two 2nd places at the State League, one 2nd place at the National League and one semi-final at the 1973 Copa Libertadores. However, Botafogo achieved a national record by staying 52 matches (44 official) undefeated between 1977 and 1978. They also disposed of a few World Cup-level players that were elected to the Brazilian League's Best XI, like PC Caju (1970, 1977), Chagas (1972/73), Alemão (1985) and Renato Gaúcho (1992).
In 1989, Botafogo finally won the State League, and did it again in 1990.
In 1993, Botafogo won the Copa Conmebol (our UEFA Cup of the 1990s), after beating Bragantino, Caracas, Atlético Mineiro and Peñarol. Highlights to their 3-0 comeback (1mn38s video) in the semi-final against Atlético Mineiro (lost 1-3 in the 1st leg) and to goalkeeper William Bacana, who saved 2 penalties in the shoot-outs in the final against Peñarol.
In 1995, led by forwards Túlio Maravilha and Donizete, Botafogo won the Brazilian League. They beat Cruzeiro in the semis (1-1 and 0-0) and Giovanni's Santos (2-1 and 1-1) in very controversial finals, where the referees made 4 capital mistakes (2 in Botafogo's favor and 2 in Santos' favor). Túlio Maravilha was the league topscorer with 23 goals, and Botafogo had 4 players elected to the Best XI (Wagner, Leandro Ávila, Donizete and Tulio Maravilha).
In 1996, Botafogo won the Tereza Herrera trophy, after beating La Coruña 2-1, and the European champions' Juventus of Del Piero in the final (4-4, p.k. 3-0). Tulio Maravilha scored a hat-trick in the final (10mn video).
After that and until today, Botafogo main highlights were 5 State Leagues and 1 Rio-São Paulo trophies, one Copa do Brasil 2nd place and one Copa Libertadores quarter-final. They also counted with some international stars in their roster, like Bebeto (1998-99), Loco Abreu (2010-12), Seedorf (2012-14), and more recently Honda and Kalou (2020-).
However, Botafogo has been relegated twice to the Serie B (2002, 2014), and been through a financial and technical crisis for decades. There have been recent talks about transforming the club into an open corporation.
To this day, Botafogo is the Brazilian club that provided more players to the World Cup: 47.
Botafogo has a fanbase of 3 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 13.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
submitted by majinmattossj2 to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.08.02 10:10 Darwin236 Engaging Our Se is the Key to Fulfillment

I'd like to give you an idea of my life before and after purposefully engaging my Se as much as possible (there is also a Tl;dr at the bottom, I know it's a lot, lol)
2017 - I'm 25 and living at home. I'm working at my mom's nutrition store. I've never had a relationship, not even a first kiss. I was in love with my coworker but she only really loves me as a friend. I struggle to let myself feel sad about it. I've always wanted to help people, see and change the world, but it felt like my life was doomed to be a boring and unfulfilled life with loneliness, to boot. At the end of 2017, I decide something needs to change. I try to let go of outcome and stop trying to control everything. I tried to start acting like an ESTP.
2018 - I do humanitarian work with a charity providing clean water in the Dominican Republic. I start learning Spanish. I start organizing people I've met online in Venezuela to create a network to get medicine and supplies into the country (there is a MAJOR humanitarian crisis there, most people have experienced hunger, many have died from starvation and most hospitals are without medicine and supplies. International aid has mostly been banned). I start a fundraiser here in the US for supplies. I end up raising thousands of dollars worth of medicine, supplies and baby formula.
In July, I eventually end up meeting a Venezuelan camgirl and her nurse aunt who was distributing the donations. We meet in the border town of Cucuta, Colombia. At this point, I can read and speak Spanish but can't understand it spoken. In Cucuta, I meet a lot of really cool people. One girl offers to help sneak me into Venezuela (my visa was denied as they're a communist dictatorship. I suspect they thought I was a spy.) I sneak into Venezuela but get caught by the military. I am able to talk my way out of it by playing clueless American who wandered over the bridge. They let me go.
In October, I meet up with a Venezuelan INTJ who I met online. I fly into Guyana and take a small plane to the Brazilian border. I catch a ride two hours away into Boa Vista, Brazil where, my now fiancee is waiting. We meet. I am no longer a kissless virgin. We fly to Rio de Janeiro. We end up taking buses to Buenos Aires, Argentina and spend a week there before a long journey back.
After she heads home to Venezuela, I decide to take the long way home. I take a flight to Tabatinga, deep in the Brazilian Amazon. It borders Leticia, Colombia as well as Peru. I walk across the border and start exploring the three countries. I meet a guy with a boat and he agrees to take me down the river to a this little family farm for a few dollars. We hang out with sloths and monkeys for a few hours before I finally fly home.
Tl;dr 2017 - I'm a sad 25-year-old kissless virgin living a boring and mundane life. Decide I can't do it anymore and start engaging my Se. 2018 - I form a small network of people in Venezuela to help me distribute meds and baby formula. I travel solo to the border town of Cucuta, Colombia. I sneak into a communist dictatorship. I travel through most of South America with, my now fiancee. Not a kissless virgin, anymore. I ride with a stranger down the Amazon river and hang out with sloths and monkeys in the Amazon. I become nearly fluent in Spanish. Fulfillment.
submitted by Darwin236 to infj [link] [comments]


2020.06.23 23:02 SavageTruths74 Resources on Cuba

Cuba & Fidel Castro
Resources:
Cuba before and After
BBC Interview on Castro
Operation Mongouse
Cuba ranked 3th in the world for literacy
Free quality healthcare:
The facts of a relatively poor economy and a long-term continuous sanctions on trade makes the Cubans' achievements more impressive. For the past forty years, education has been a top priority for the Cuban government.[17] Cuba maintains twice the amount of public spending on education as its more wealthy neighbors, at 10% of GNP
Racism: Article detailing the history of racism, and how Castro combat it through anti-discriminatory laws with overwhelming support, that is conveyed today Also Pre-revolutionary Cuba was, in effect, an apartheid society. There was widespread segregation and discrimination. Afro-Cubans were restricted to the worst jobs, the worst housing, the worst education… The commitment to defeating racism has brought about tremendous gains in equality and racial integration. Isaac Saney writes: “It can be argued that Cuba has done more than any other country to dismantle institutionalised racism and generate racial harmony.”
Cuban woman rights record (ranked 6th in the world for women political participation): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights_in_Cuba
[From Leo Humberman and Paul Sweezy's "Cuba anatomy of a revolution: "Note that in all of Cuba (from the 1953 census), in both urban and rural areas, only 35.2% of the dwelling units have running water, and only 28% have inside flush toilets. In 2015, about 95% of Cubans had access to an improved water source (96% of the urban population, but only 92% of the rural population). Cuba's access to adequate sanitation is the second-highest in Latin America and the Caribbean after Uruguay](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Cuba#Access
In 1959, only about 50% of households in the island nation had access to electricity. By 1989, the electric grid provided service to 95% of household.
Ironically, the electricity before the revolution was ran by an American-owned electric power company, and was riddled with corruption (from the same book from above)
Over the last 50 years, comprehensive social protection programmes have largely eradicated poverty and hunger. Food-based social safety nets include a monthly food basket for the entire population, school feeding programmes, and mother-and-child health care programmes.
First country to develop Lung cancer, meningitus vaccines and HIV mother-to-child prevention
Free training for international students
Cuba is the largest and most populated island in the Caribbean yet consistently experiences the lowest death tolls during hurricane season. According to United Nations, it's not because Cubans are lucky but because they're prepared. According to Oxfam, from 1996 to 2002, only 16 people were killed by the six hurricanes that struck Cuba. Cuba's meteorological institute has 15 provincial offices. They share data with US scientists and project storm tracks. Around 72 hours before a storm's predicted landfall, national media issue alerts while civil protection committees check evacuation plans and shelters. Hurricane awareness is taught in schools and there are practice drills for the public before each hurricane season.
(the above information was completely compiled by bayarea415, thank you comrade).
The blockade explained https://www.reddit.com/LateStageImperialism/comments/crc8j4/cuba_50_years_of_economic_blocade_explained/
Democracy in Cuba:
20 Reasons to Support Cuba Cuba: A Revolution in Motion by Isaac Saney
https://www.democracyintheus.com/ Cuban Democracy Fact Sheet All in This Together:
Cuba's Participatory Democra The Elected Delegate and the Dissident in Cuba's Municipal
Elections by Arnold August 2002 Cuban Constitution Work and Democracy in Socialist
Cuba by Linda Fuller
Article by Hellen Yaffe:
Alongside his depiction as a “brutal dictator”, negative reflections on Fidel Castro since his death in November 2016 have focused on his “mismanagement” of the Cuban economy and the consequent “extremes of poverty” suffered by ordinary Cubans.
This caricature is problematic – not only because it ignores the devastating economic impact of the United States embargo over 55 years, but also because it is premised on neoclassical economic assumptions. This means that by stressing economic policy over economic restraints, critics can shift responsibility for Cuba’s alleged poverty on to Castro without implicating successive US administrations that have imposed the suffocating embargo.
This approach also ignores key questions about Cuba after the revolution. Where can medium and low-income countries get the capital to invest in infrastructure and welfare provision? How can foreign capital be obtained under conditions which do not obstruct such development, and how can a late-developing country such as Cuba use international trade to produce a surplus in a global economy which – many claim – tends to “unequal terms of trade”?
It was the search for solutions to the challenge of development that led Cuba’s revolutionary government to adopt a socialist system. They adopted a centrally planned economy in which state ownership predominated because they perceived this system as offering the best answer to those historical challenges.
But the commitment to operate within a socialist framework implied additional restraints and complications, particularly in the context of a bipolar world. My book, Che Guevara: The Economics of Revolution, examines the contradictions and challenges faced by the nascent revolutionary government from the perspective of Guevara’s role as president of the National Bank and minister of industries.
Literature on Cuba is dominated by “Cubanology”, an academic school central to the political and ideological opposition to Cuban socialism. Its emergence and links to the US government are well documented. Its arguments are that the revolution changed everything in Cuba – and Fidel (and then Raul) Castro have personally dominated domestic and foreign policy since, denying Cuban democracy and repressing civil society. Thanks to their mismanagement of the economy, growth since 1959 has been negligible. They simply replaced dependency on the US with dependency on the USSR until its collapse in 1990.
These ideas have also shaped political and media discourse on Cuba. But the problem with this analysis is that it obstructs our ability to see clearly what goes on in Cuba or explain the revolution’s endurance and Cuban society’s vitality.
What did Castro inherit?
Arguments about the success or failure of the post-1959 economy often hang on the state of the Cuban economy in the 1950s. The post-1959 government inherited a sugar-dominated economy with the deep socio-economic and racial scars of slavery. Cubanologist Jaime Suchlicki argues that Batista’s Cuba was “well into what Walter Rostow has characterised as the take-off stage”, while Fred Judson points to structural weaknesses in the Cuban economy: “Long-term crises characterised the economy, which had a surface and transient prosperity.” So while one side insists that the revolution interrupted healthy capitalist growth, the other believes it was a precondition to resolving the contradictions obstructing development by ending Cuba’s subjugation to the needs of US capitalism.
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/latamcaribbean/files/2017/02/cuba_graph_b.gif GDP of Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica 1960-2015 (Source: World Bank)
Following the revolution, Castro set out to bring social welfare and land reform to the Cuban people and to confiscate the ill-gotten gains of the Cuban elite. But when the defeated Fulgencio Batista and his associates fled Cuba, they stole millions of pesos from the National Bank and the Treasury. The country was decapitalised, severely limiting the capacity for public spending and private investments. Wealthy Cubans were leaving the island, taking their deposits and taxes with them. How was the new government going to carry out the ambitious socio-economic reforms without financial resources?
We have to consider these real circumstances at every juncture. For example, when the US embargo was first implemented, 95% of Cuba’s capital goods and 100% of its spare parts were imported from the US – and the US was overwhelmingly the main recipient of Cuban exports. When the Soviet bloc disintegrated, Cuba lost 85% of its trade and investment, leading GDP to plummet 35%. These events produced serious economic constraints on Cuba’s room for manoeuvre.
Putting a price on poverty
Moving on, we should also ask: how are we to measure Cuba’s poverty? Is it GDP per capita? Is it money-income per day? Should we apply the yardsticks of capitalist economics, focusing on growth and productivity statistics to measure “success” or “failure”, while paying little attention to social and political priorities?
Even factoring in its low GDP per capita, the Human Development Index (HDI) lists Cuba in the “high human development” category; it excels not just in health and education, but also in women’s participation and political inclusion. Cuba has eliminated child malnutrition. No children sleep on the streets. In fact, there is no homelessness. Even during the hungry years of economic crisis of the 1990s, Cubans did not starve. Cuba stuck with the planned economy, and it enabled them to ration their scarce resources.
Yes, salaries are extremely low (as both Fidel and Raul have lamented) – but Cubans’ salaries do not determine their standard of living. About 85% of Cubans own their own homes and rent cannot exceed 4% of a tenant’s income. The state provides a (very) basic food basket while utility bills, transport and medicine costs are kept low. The opera, cinema, ballet and so on are cheap for all. High-quality education and healthcare are free. They are part of the material wealth of Cuba and should not be dismissed – as if individual consumption of consumer goods were the only measure of economic success.
Operation miracle
The specific and real challenges Cuban development has faced has generated unique contradictions. In a planned economy, with an extremely tight budget, they have had to prioritise: the infrastructure is crumbling and yet they have first-world human development indicators. Infant mortality rates reveal a lot about the standard of living, being influenced by multiple socioeconomic and medical factors. Cuba’s infant mortality rate is 4.5 per 1,000 live births, which sits it among first-world countries – and above the US on the CIA’s own ranking.
It is not just Cubans who have benefited from these investments. Tens of thousands of Cuban doctors, educators and other development aid workers have served around the world. At present some 37,000 Cuban doctors and nurses work in 77 countries. They generate foreign exchange of some US$8 billion a year – Cuba’s biggest export.
In addition, Cuba provides both free medical treatment and free medical training to thousands of foreigners every year. As a direct initiative of Fidel, in 1999, the Latin American School of Medicine was inaugurated in Havana to provide foreign students from poor countries with six years of training and accommodation completely free. In 2004, Cuba teamed up with Venezuela to provide free eye surgery to people in three dozen countries under Operation Miracle. In the first ten years more than 3m people had their sight restored.
Prohibiting even trade in medicines, the US embargo led Castro to prioritise investments in medical sciences. Cuba now owns around 900 patents and markets pharmaceutical products and vaccines in 40 countries, generating yearly revenues of US$300m, with the potential for massive expansion. The sector produces more than 70% of the medicines consumed by its 11m people. The entire industry is state owned, research programmes respond to the needs of the population, and all surpluses are reinvested into the sector. Without state planning and investment it is unlikely that this could have been achieved in a poor country.
In the mid-1980s Cuba developed the world’s first Meningitis B vaccine. Today, it leads in oncology drugs. In 2012 Cuba patented the first therapeutic cancer vaccine. The US embargo forces Cuba to source medicines, medical devices and radiology products outside the United States, incurring additional transportation costs.
Sharing economy
Ecuador’s president, Rafael Correa, told me in 2009:
A great example provided by Cuba is that in its poverty it has known how to share, with all its international programmes. Cuba is the country with the greatest cooperation in relation to its gross domestic product and it is an example for all of us. This doesn’t mean that Cuba doesn’t have big problems, but it is also certain that it is impossible to judge the success or failure of the Cuban model without considering the US blockade, a blockade that has lasted for 50 years. Ecuador wouldn’t survive for five months with that blockade.
Let’s consider the embargo: the Cuban government estimates that it has cost the island US$753.69 billion. Their annual report to the United Nations provides a detailed account of that calculation. That’s a lot for a country whose average GDP between 1970 and 2014 has been calculated at US$31.7 billion.
Yes, Castro presided over mistakes and errors in Cuba’s planned economy. Yes, there is bureaucracy, low productivity, liquidity crisis, debt and numerous other problems – but where aren’t there? Castro pointed to these weaknesses in his own speeches to the Cuban people. But President Correa is right – to objectively judge Castro’s legacy, Cuban development and contemporary reforms today, we cannot pretend that the US blockade – which remains today despite rapprochement – has not shaped the Cuban economy.
Castro almost saw out 11 US presidents since 1959, but he never lived to see the end of the US embargo. New challenges face Cuba, with economic reforms underway and the restoration of relations with the United States. The next step, including for me personally, is to assess the Cuban revolution’s resilience in this post-Castro, Donald Trump era. End of article.
More Resources
https://mronline.org/2018/09/28/introduction-to-the-analysis-of-the-draft-constitution-of-the-republic-during-the-popular-consultation/
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/11/cuba-health/508859/
https://www.facebook.com/telesurenglish/videos/1313058045504261/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/As-World-Burns-Cuba-Number-1-For-Sustainable-Development-WWF-20161027-0018.html
http://www.invent-the-future.org/2013/07/20-reasons-to-support-cuba/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/24/obamas-cuba-visit-illustrates-us-arrogance/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/cubas-low-level-of-internet-use-not-a-policy-of-restricting-the-flow-of-information/
http://www.granma.cu/cuba/2017-09-28/etecsa-expande-servicio-nauta-hogar-a-otras-provincias-de-cuba-28-09-2017-00-09-26
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cuba-cable/cuba-gets-fiber-optic-cable-link-to-venezuela-idUSTRE7193DP20110210
http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/3147347/0/cuba-internet-todos-hogares-diciembre/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2010/05/09/a-failed-systems-failed-promises/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2009/04/30/cuba-and-the-real-battle-for-democracy/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Over-250000-Cubans-Join-Procession-to-Pay-Tribute-to-Fidel-20171204-0019.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npkeecCErQc
https://www.guernicamag.com/hyatt-bass-lessons-from-cubas-incarceration-model/
https://www.workers.org/2015/01/22/truth-unions-cuba/#.WFk3ufArJdh
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/09/cuban-revolution-fidel-castro-casinos-batista/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cuba-Begins-Clinical-Trials-to-Delay-Progress-of-Alzheimers-20170515-0013.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cuba-Develops-New-Skin-Cancer-Medicine-20160909-0007.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Internationalist-Solidarity-Recognized-Once-Again-Doctors-Awarded-by-WHO-20170524-0024.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Agricultural-Revolution-Vanguard-for-Global-Food-System-20161129-0010.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/opinion/Cubas-Sustainable-Agro-Ecological-Model-Could-Save-the-World-20161013-0023.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Socialist-Biotechnology-Sector-a-Global-Leader-20160517-0041.html
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/15/cia-motto-proudly-overthrowing-the-cuban-government-since-1959/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2015/08/21/cuba-and-the-united-states-the-claims-game/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/25/cuba-reflections-on-life-and-death/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2015/12/18/cuba-one-year-later-what-has-changed/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2014/01/10/cuba-55-years-of-ideas-and-truth/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/18/human-rights-hypocrisy-us-criticizes-cuba/
https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cuba-showing-how-defeat-racism
https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cubas-green-revolution-%C3%A2%C2%80%C2%94-achieving-sustainability
https://monthlyreview.org/2011/03/01/the-latin-american-school-of-medicine-today/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/8059287.stm
http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/05/community-drills-part-of-cubas-top-notch-disaster-response-system/
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/11/cubas-lung-cancer-vaccine/505778/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/12/09/the-cuban-revolution-defying-imperialism-from-its-backyard/
https://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/archive/castro/2003/05/01.htm
The Cuban Blockade
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Twitter-Storm-Launched-Against-US-Blockade-of-Cuba-20171031-0015.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/US-Israel-Only-States-to-Vote-Against-Lifting-Blockade-on-Cuba-20171101-0005.html
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/11/08/the-necessity-of-ending-the-economic-commercial-and-financial-blockade-against-cuba/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/11/06/using-fear-to-strike-at-cuban-tourism/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/10/27/u-s-political-class-looks-away-as-cuba-details-impact-of-u-s-blockade/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2013/06/28/the-unrelenting-economic-war-on-cuba/
submitted by SavageTruths74 to InformedTankie [link] [comments]


2020.06.21 08:10 SavageTruths74 Cuba, Che and Fidel Castro.

Cuba & Fidel Castro

Resources:
Cuba before and After
BBC Interview on Castro
Operation Mongouse
Cuba ranked 3th in the world for literacy
Free quality healthcare:
The facts of a relatively poor economy and a long-term continuous sanctions on trade makes the Cubans' achievements more impressive. For the past forty years, education has been a top priority for the Cuban government.[17] Cuba maintains twice the amount of public spending on education as its more wealthy neighbors, at 10% of GNP
Racism: Article detailing the history of racism, and how Castro combat it through anti-discriminatory laws with overwhelming support, that is conveyed today Also Pre-revolutionary Cuba was, in effect, an apartheid society. There was widespread segregation and discrimination. Afro-Cubans were restricted to the worst jobs, the worst housing, the worst education… The commitment to defeating racism has brought about tremendous gains in equality and racial integration. Isaac Saney writes: “It can be argued that Cuba has done more than any other country to dismantle institutionalised racism and generate racial harmony.”
Cuban woman rights record (ranked 6th in the world for women political participation): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights_in_Cuba
[From Leo Humberman and Paul Sweezy's "Cuba anatomy of a revolution: "Note that in all of Cuba (from the 1953 census), in both urban and rural areas, only 35.2% of the dwelling units have running water, and only 28% have inside flush toilets. In 2015, about 95% of Cubans had access to an improved water source (96% of the urban population, but only 92% of the rural population). Cuba's access to adequate sanitation is the second-highest in Latin America and the Caribbean after Uruguay](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Cuba#Access
In 1959, only about 50% of households in the island nation had access to electricity. By 1989, the electric grid provided service to 95% of household.
Ironically, the electricity before the revolution was ran by an American-owned electric power company, and was riddled with corruption (from the same book from above)
Over the last 50 years, comprehensive social protection programmes have largely eradicated poverty and hunger. Food-based social safety nets include a monthly food basket for the entire population, school feeding programmes, and mother-and-child health care programmes.
First country to develop Lung cancer, meningitus vaccines and HIV mother-to-child prevention
Free training for international students
Cuba is the largest and most populated island in the Caribbean yet consistently experiences the lowest death tolls during hurricane season. According to United Nations, it's not because Cubans are lucky but because they're prepared. According to Oxfam, from 1996 to 2002, only 16 people were killed by the six hurricanes that struck Cuba. Cuba's meteorological institute has 15 provincial offices. They share data with US scientists and project storm tracks. Around 72 hours before a storm's predicted landfall, national media issue alerts while civil protection committees check evacuation plans and shelters. Hurricane awareness is taught in schools and there are practice drills for the public before each hurricane season.

(the above information was completely compiled by bayarea415, thank you comrade).
The blockade explained https://www.reddit.com/LateStageImperialism/comments/crc8j4/cuba_50_years_of_economic_blocade_explained/
Democracy in Cuba:
20 Reasons to Support Cuba Cuba: A Revolution in Motion by Isaac Saney
https://www.democracyintheus.com/ Cuban Democracy Fact Sheet All in This Together:
Cuba's Participatory Democra The Elected Delegate and the Dissident in Cuba's Municipal
Elections by Arnold August 2002 Cuban Constitution Work and Democracy in Socialist
Cuba by Linda Fuller
Article by Hellen Yaffe:
Alongside his depiction as a “brutal dictator”, negative reflections on Fidel Castro since his death in November 2016 have focused on his “mismanagement” of the Cuban economy and the consequent “extremes of poverty” suffered by ordinary Cubans.
This caricature is problematic – not only because it ignores the devastating economic impact of the United States embargo over 55 years, but also because it is premised on neoclassical economic assumptions. This means that by stressing economic policy over economic restraints, critics can shift responsibility for Cuba’s alleged poverty on to Castro without implicating successive US administrations that have imposed the suffocating embargo.
This approach also ignores key questions about Cuba after the revolution. Where can medium and low-income countries get the capital to invest in infrastructure and welfare provision? How can foreign capital be obtained under conditions which do not obstruct such development, and how can a late-developing country such as Cuba use international trade to produce a surplus in a global economy which – many claim – tends to “unequal terms of trade”?
It was the search for solutions to the challenge of development that led Cuba’s revolutionary government to adopt a socialist system. They adopted a centrally planned economy in which state ownership predominated because they perceived this system as offering the best answer to those historical challenges.
But the commitment to operate within a socialist framework implied additional restraints and complications, particularly in the context of a bipolar world. My book, Che Guevara: The Economics of Revolution, examines the contradictions and challenges faced by the nascent revolutionary government from the perspective of Guevara’s role as president of the National Bank and minister of industries.
Literature on Cuba is dominated by “Cubanology”, an academic school central to the political and ideological opposition to Cuban socialism. Its emergence and links to the US government are well documented. Its arguments are that the revolution changed everything in Cuba – and Fidel (and then Raul) Castro have personally dominated domestic and foreign policy since, denying Cuban democracy and repressing civil society. Thanks to their mismanagement of the economy, growth since 1959 has been negligible. They simply replaced dependency on the US with dependency on the USSR until its collapse in 1990.
These ideas have also shaped political and media discourse on Cuba. But the problem with this analysis is that it obstructs our ability to see clearly what goes on in Cuba or explain the revolution’s endurance and Cuban society’s vitality.
What did Castro inherit?
Arguments about the success or failure of the post-1959 economy often hang on the state of the Cuban economy in the 1950s. The post-1959 government inherited a sugar-dominated economy with the deep socio-economic and racial scars of slavery. Cubanologist Jaime Suchlicki argues that Batista’s Cuba was “well into what Walter Rostow has characterised as the take-off stage”, while Fred Judson points to structural weaknesses in the Cuban economy: “Long-term crises characterised the economy, which had a surface and transient prosperity.” So while one side insists that the revolution interrupted healthy capitalist growth, the other believes it was a precondition to resolving the contradictions obstructing development by ending Cuba’s subjugation to the needs of US capitalism.
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/latamcaribbean/files/2017/02/cuba_graph_b.gif GDP of Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica 1960-2015 (Source: World Bank)
Following the revolution, Castro set out to bring social welfare and land reform to the Cuban people and to confiscate the ill-gotten gains of the Cuban elite. But when the defeated Fulgencio Batista and his associates fled Cuba, they stole millions of pesos from the National Bank and the Treasury. The country was decapitalised, severely limiting the capacity for public spending and private investments. Wealthy Cubans were leaving the island, taking their deposits and taxes with them. How was the new government going to carry out the ambitious socio-economic reforms without financial resources?
We have to consider these real circumstances at every juncture. For example, when the US embargo was first implemented, 95% of Cuba’s capital goods and 100% of its spare parts were imported from the US – and the US was overwhelmingly the main recipient of Cuban exports. When the Soviet bloc disintegrated, Cuba lost 85% of its trade and investment, leading GDP to plummet 35%. These events produced serious economic constraints on Cuba’s room for manoeuvre.
Putting a price on poverty
Moving on, we should also ask: how are we to measure Cuba’s poverty? Is it GDP per capita? Is it money-income per day? Should we apply the yardsticks of capitalist economics, focusing on growth and productivity statistics to measure “success” or “failure”, while paying little attention to social and political priorities?

Even factoring in its low GDP per capita, the Human Development Index (HDI) lists Cuba in the “high human development” category; it excels not just in health and education, but also in women’s participation and political inclusion. Cuba has eliminated child malnutrition. No children sleep on the streets. In fact, there is no homelessness. Even during the hungry years of economic crisis of the 1990s, Cubans did not starve. Cuba stuck with the planned economy, and it enabled them to ration their scarce resources.
Yes, salaries are extremely low (as both Fidel and Raul have lamented) – but Cubans’ salaries do not determine their standard of living. About 85% of Cubans own their own homes and rent cannot exceed 4% of a tenant’s income. The state provides a (very) basic food basket while utility bills, transport and medicine costs are kept low. The opera, cinema, ballet and so on are cheap for all. High-quality education and healthcare are free. They are part of the material wealth of Cuba and should not be dismissed – as if individual consumption of consumer goods were the only measure of economic success.
Operation miracle
The specific and real challenges Cuban development has faced has generated unique contradictions. In a planned economy, with an extremely tight budget, they have had to prioritise: the infrastructure is crumbling and yet they have first-world human development indicators. Infant mortality rates reveal a lot about the standard of living, being influenced by multiple socioeconomic and medical factors. Cuba’s infant mortality rate is 4.5 per 1,000 live births, which sits it among first-world countries – and above the US on the CIA’s own ranking.
It is not just Cubans who have benefited from these investments. Tens of thousands of Cuban doctors, educators and other development aid workers have served around the world. At present some 37,000 Cuban doctors and nurses work in 77 countries. They generate foreign exchange of some US$8 billion a year – Cuba’s biggest export.
In addition, Cuba provides both free medical treatment and free medical training to thousands of foreigners every year. As a direct initiative of Fidel, in 1999, the Latin American School of Medicine was inaugurated in Havana to provide foreign students from poor countries with six years of training and accommodation completely free. In 2004, Cuba teamed up with Venezuela to provide free eye surgery to people in three dozen countries under Operation Miracle. In the first ten years more than 3m people had their sight restored.
Prohibiting even trade in medicines, the US embargo led Castro to prioritise investments in medical sciences. Cuba now owns around 900 patents and markets pharmaceutical products and vaccines in 40 countries, generating yearly revenues of US$300m, with the potential for massive expansion. The sector produces more than 70% of the medicines consumed by its 11m people. The entire industry is state owned, research programmes respond to the needs of the population, and all surpluses are reinvested into the sector. Without state planning and investment it is unlikely that this could have been achieved in a poor country.
In the mid-1980s Cuba developed the world’s first Meningitis B vaccine. Today, it leads in oncology drugs. In 2012 Cuba patented the first therapeutic cancer vaccine. The US embargo forces Cuba to source medicines, medical devices and radiology products outside the United States, incurring additional transportation costs.
Sharing economy
Ecuador’s president, Rafael Correa, told me in 2009:
A great example provided by Cuba is that in its poverty it has known how to share, with all its international programmes. Cuba is the country with the greatest cooperation in relation to its gross domestic product and it is an example for all of us. This doesn’t mean that Cuba doesn’t have big problems, but it is also certain that it is impossible to judge the success or failure of the Cuban model without considering the US blockade, a blockade that has lasted for 50 years. Ecuador wouldn’t survive for five months with that blockade.
Let’s consider the embargo: the Cuban government estimates that it has cost the island US$753.69 billion. Their annual report to the United Nations provides a detailed account of that calculation. That’s a lot for a country whose average GDP between 1970 and 2014 has been calculated at US$31.7 billion.
Yes, Castro presided over mistakes and errors in Cuba’s planned economy. Yes, there is bureaucracy, low productivity, liquidity crisis, debt and numerous other problems – but where aren’t there? Castro pointed to these weaknesses in his own speeches to the Cuban people. But President Correa is right – to objectively judge Castro’s legacy, Cuban development and contemporary reforms today, we cannot pretend that the US blockade – which remains today despite rapprochement – has not shaped the Cuban economy.
Castro almost saw out 11 US presidents since 1959, but he never lived to see the end of the US embargo. New challenges face Cuba, with economic reforms underway and the restoration of relations with the United States. The next step, including for me personally, is to assess the Cuban revolution’s resilience in this post-Castro, Donald Trump era. End of article.


More Resources

https://mronline.org/2018/09/28/introduction-to-the-analysis-of-the-draft-constitution-of-the-republic-during-the-popular-consultation/
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/11/cuba-health/508859/
https://www.facebook.com/telesurenglish/videos/1313058045504261/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/As-World-Burns-Cuba-Number-1-For-Sustainable-Development-WWF-20161027-0018.html
http://www.invent-the-future.org/2013/07/20-reasons-to-support-cuba/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/24/obamas-cuba-visit-illustrates-us-arrogance/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2015/08/22/cubas-low-level-of-internet-use-not-a-policy-of-restricting-the-flow-of-information/
http://www.granma.cu/cuba/2017-09-28/etecsa-expande-servicio-nauta-hogar-a-otras-provincias-de-cuba-28-09-2017-00-09-26
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cuba-cable/cuba-gets-fiber-optic-cable-link-to-venezuela-idUSTRE7193DP20110210
http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/3147347/0/cuba-internet-todos-hogares-diciembre/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2010/05/09/a-failed-systems-failed-promises/
https://gowans.wordpress.com/2009/04/30/cuba-and-the-real-battle-for-democracy/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Over-250000-Cubans-Join-Procession-to-Pay-Tribute-to-Fidel-20171204-0019.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npkeecCErQc
https://www.guernicamag.com/hyatt-bass-lessons-from-cubas-incarceration-model/
https://www.workers.org/2015/01/22/truth-unions-cuba/#.WFk3ufArJdh
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/09/cuban-revolution-fidel-castro-casinos-batista/
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cuba-Begins-Clinical-Trials-to-Delay-Progress-of-Alzheimers-20170515-0013.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cuba-Develops-New-Skin-Cancer-Medicine-20160909-0007.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Internationalist-Solidarity-Recognized-Once-Again-Doctors-Awarded-by-WHO-20170524-0024.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Agricultural-Revolution-Vanguard-for-Global-Food-System-20161129-0010.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/opinion/Cubas-Sustainable-Agro-Ecological-Model-Could-Save-the-World-20161013-0023.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Cubas-Socialist-Biotechnology-Sector-a-Global-Leader-20160517-0041.html
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/15/cia-motto-proudly-overthrowing-the-cuban-government-since-1959/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2015/08/21/cuba-and-the-united-states-the-claims-game/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/25/cuba-reflections-on-life-and-death/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2015/12/18/cuba-one-year-later-what-has-changed/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2014/01/10/cuba-55-years-of-ideas-and-truth/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/03/18/human-rights-hypocrisy-us-criticizes-cuba/
https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cuba-showing-how-defeat-racism
https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cubas-green-revolution-%C3%A2%C2%80%C2%94-achieving-sustainability
https://monthlyreview.org/2011/03/01/the-latin-american-school-of-medicine-today/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/8059287.stm
http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/05/community-drills-part-of-cubas-top-notch-disaster-response-system/
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/11/cubas-lung-cancer-vaccine/505778/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2016/12/09/the-cuban-revolution-defying-imperialism-from-its-backyard/
https://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/archive/castro/2003/05/01.htm

The Cuban Blockade

https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Twitter-Storm-Launched-Against-US-Blockade-of-Cuba-20171031-0015.html
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/US-Israel-Only-States-to-Vote-Against-Lifting-Blockade-on-Cuba-20171101-0005.html
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/11/08/the-necessity-of-ending-the-economic-commercial-and-financial-blockade-against-cuba/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/11/06/using-fear-to-strike-at-cuban-tourism/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/10/27/u-s-political-class-looks-away-as-cuba-details-impact-of-u-s-blockade/
https://www.counterpunch.org/2013/06/28/the-unrelenting-economic-war-on-cuba/

submitted by SavageTruths74 to u/SavageTruths74 [link] [comments]


2020.06.07 17:40 Superfan234 The Fall of Venezuela's Regime: Running out of Cash

Last week, the Regime increased the price of Gasoline by 50$ Cents. Showing once again they are desperate for more money
For years, Venezuela have been trapped in a Perfect storm. Between a massive decrease in Revenue, and little to no saving to sustain itself. With Coronavirus and USA sanctions, situation can only get worse
This begs the question: How long do we have until the Regime's revenue dries up?

1.1 The Vaults Of Venezuela's Central Bank

During the prime time of the Venezuelan Economic Boom, Chavez managed to amaze a tremendous amount money at his disposal. At least 40 Billion dollars were stored in case of emergency as International Reserves
Chavez's savings helped him to survive the Oil crash of 2008. In 2011, he decided to store all the Gold he could in the vaults of the Venezuelan Central Bank
Maduro (a man notorious for his lack long last planning) couldn't resist the urge to use those deposits, and a year after his mentor passed away, he quickly started to deplete BCV vaults. In mere 7 years, he wasted 80% of his predecessor savings. And, somehow, still managed to defund all public services to zero and also hit Default
Let's analyze more in depth the numbers
International Reserves of Venezuela, at the start of each new year [*]
  • 2013 = 28.8$ Billion Dollars
  • 2014 = 21.6$ Billions
  • 2015 = 22.1$ Billions
  • 2016 = 15.6$ Billions
  • 2017 = 11.0$ Billions
  • 2018 = 9.4$ Billions
  • 2019 = 8.5$ Billions
  • 2020 = 6.6$ Billions
  • 2020 (*June) = ~4.5$ Billions
As you can see, during the Government of Maduro, the savings of the BCV have dropped at an alarming rate. In 2020, the Crisis became even worse, because USA sanctions blocked some Gold reserves the BCV had overseas. In practice, the Regime only have access to 4.5 Billion Dollars in Reserves stored in Venezuela: 3.5 Billion in the form of Gold, and around 1 Billion in cash [*]

1.2 Out of Cash?

There is an easy way to tell when someone is lying. Don't focus on what people say , focus on what they Do
And it the case of The Revolution, their later actions are pretty revealing
  • For first time in 20 years of Chavism, Maduro asked a lend to the IMF
  • In early 2020, they asked for 350 million Dollars lend from the Comunidad Andina, to pay some "electric reparations" [*]
  • They recently announced a 25% increase in Dollar Taxes [*]
  • A massive increase in Gasoline prices. An increase of 50 cents from last week. On top of that, Gasoline can only be paid in Dollars
  • They have stopped increasing the Minimum wage, leaving it at only per 4 Dollars a month
  • Public Workers, where most of his supporters are, are fired by the thousands. Those who stay, are paid less than 10 dollars a month
  • Public pensions have been reduced to mere 2 Dollars a month
  • Money Bonus they used to give to their supporters have decreased to just 2 Dollars in the past months
  • Low salaries have reached even the Military. At least 6000 soldiers abandoned the Army in 2019 , low salaries might be one the reasons[*]
  • Maduro was ready to make some "mighty" Military exercises, to scare USA. The Result? Two days of Military presence in the whole year 2020
Something I find particularly interesting, was the last payment done by Venezuela to Iran.
For those of you who don't know, last month Maduro paid ~500 million Dollars to Iran to import some Tankers full of Gasoline. What's weird about this payment, it was the way it was done.
According to the USA intel, the payment was made using solid gold, almost 9 tons of it. And they were sent by plane
Why Maduro decided to send Half a Billion dollars worth of Gold, instead of Dollars? Wouldn't be safer to pay in cash instead?
Sending so much Gold by plane is a dangerous transaction. As far as we know, that's almost 15% of Venezuelan Gold Reserves in just one payment
And why didn't they buy more Gasoline anyway? The Tankers they bought barely lasted a couple of days
Doubts increase when Maduro suddenly increased Gasoline by 50 cents. And forced buyers to pay in physical USA Dollars. To pay Gasoline at international prices it's something venezuelans haven't done in Decades. And only accept Dollars as payment? Odd, considering the Dollar is USA's currency
After 2015, the ability of the Regime to make profits have decayed to point they are not capable to finance their most basic needs, including the wages of the Military and Police
I suspect that's why the Military are now in charge of gasoline stations. It's the only way The Regime can pay the Military with real money (and that's why they ask venezuelans to pay in Dollars, instead of Bolivars)
But this system depends on the ability of Maduro to obtain more Gasoline. And with the BCV Gold reserves almost depleted, Who is going to pay for this Gasoline?
Stopping the flow of Gasoline to Venezuela, implies Military is not going to be paid anymore. That's something the Regime wants to avoid at all cost, but it seems like an inevitable fate at this point
submitted by Superfan234 to neoliberal [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 03:32 Beginning_Beginning Drug trafficking as a convenient excuse for intervention in Venezuela

I just saw an article here at the sub on the US offering 5MM USD for the Arrest of Venezuela’s Crypto Chief. A quote from that article:
Geoffrey Berman, district attorney, of New York, accused him last month of being part of a corrupt group of high-ranking Venezuelan officials – including President Nicolas Maduro – running a “narco-terrorism partnership” intent on flooding “the United States with cocaine in order to undermine the health and wellbeing of our nation.”
So, the theory is that Maduro wants to flood the US with cocaine and that the entire Venezuelan government is a huge drug-trafficking enterprise that supports this purpose. I think some people honestly believe that this is true. Perhaps others believe that there might or not be truth to the idea of the Venezuelan narco-state but still support the premise because it serves as a way to achieve foreign military intervention in the country. I won't even attempt to argue that the Venezuelan government does not engage in drug trafficking but only to present some sources that question a) the idea of Venezuela flooding the US with drugs; b) that neighboring countries like Colombia are trully concerned with drugs trafficking in general; and c) that the US government is truly concerned with drugs undermining the health and wellbeing of the nation.
Venezuela isn't flooding the US with drugs
Just today, Colombian political magazine Semana published a report titled "La principal ruta de la droga sigue siendo el Pacífico y no Venezuela" - "The main drug (trafficking) route continues to be the Pacific and not Venezuela"
https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/narcotrafico-en-colombia-las-rutas-de-salida-de-la-droga/661805
El informe da cuatro datos reveladores. El primero es que para el año 2017, según los datos de instituciones de los Estados Unidos, el 85 % del tráfico de drogas fue marítimo, por lo cual se deduce que el 15 % fue aéreo. Pero del total del tráfico marítimo, el 70 % pasó por el Pacífico, lo que significa que el 30 % restante pasó por el mar Caribe.
Lo anterior indica que Venezuela no es la principal ruta de salida de la droga que se produce en Colombia. Además, en el informe se cita un reporte de la organización Wola, que dice que los datos de la Base de Datos Antidrogas Consolidada Interagencial (CCDB, por su sigla en inglés) de los EE. UU. muestran que los flujos de cocaína a través de Venezuela han disminuido desde su pico en 2017. Según los datos de CCDB, la cantidad de cocaína que fluye a través de Venezuela cayó un 13 por ciento de 2017 a 2018, y parecía continuar disminuyendo ligeramente hasta mediados de 2019.
So, not only is Colombia the main producer of cocaine and the US the main consumer, but Colombia also the main exporter by far. And not just that, Venezuela has actually been reducing cocaine traffic through it's territory for years.
If this wasn't enough, Colombia under Duque's presidency broke the dishonourable record of most coca plants cultivated area in its history: 212 thousand hectares in 2019.
Un tercer dato que trae el informe es que, según el Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos, en 2019 Colombia llegó a la cifra más alta de cultivos de hoja de coca en su historia, con 212 mil hectáreas. En 2018 fueron 208 mil. Es decir, se produjo un leve aumento. De fondo, lo que existe es que aquella idea de que el aumento de los cultivos era producto de una mano blanda y que cuando el gobierno de Iván Duque llegara todo iba a cambiar, pero no fue así.
Neighboring governments aren't trully concerned with drugs traffick in general
Today, it was reported in Colombia that a woman named Maria Claudia Daza and known by the nickname "Cayita" held a first interrogation with prosecutors because she was recorded - as part of an investigation by Colombian intelligence services - talking to a famous drug trafficker known as Ñeñe Hernandez and proposing him to "pasar plata debajo de la mesa" - that is, to provide non-traceable funds to buy votes for then presidential candidate Ivan Duque in the northern coastal states.
https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/judicial/maria-claudia-daza-guardo-silencio-durante-interrogatorio-por-nenepolitica-articulo-922447
Yesterday, General Raúl Antonio Rodríguez Arévalo droped out of the Colombian Army where he was acting as Chief of the Army Operations Staff because of his links to drug trafficker Ñeñe Hernandez.
https://www.semana.com/semana-tv/semana-noticias/articulo/alto-mando-del-ejercito-vinculado-con-el-nene-hernandez-pide-su-retiro/67559
In mid march an ambulance airplane that left Olaya Herrera airport (the urban airport in Medellin) crashed in Honduras full of drugs.
https://www.eltiempo.com/unidad-investigativa/cae-en-honduras-avioneta-ambulancia-con-coca-colombiana-474616
A couple of months ago the police found and incinerated a drug lab at a farm belonging the Colombia's ambassador in Uruguay - Fernando Sanclemente Alzate - capable of processing one ton of coke a month. The ambassador resigned to his post and returned to Colombia where he denied any wrongdoing.
https://www.elheraldo.co/colombia/hallan-laboratorio-de-coca-en-finca-familiar-de-embajador-de-colombia-en-uruguay-701565
I find it curious that his name came up last weekend on an investigative report by Daniel Coronel titled "El vuelo fatal" ("The fatal flight") - https://losdanieles.com/daniel-coronell/el-vuelo-fatal/
Last week Coronell reminded Colombians that a young Alvaro Uribe sold an apartment back in the seventies to a guy named Israel Londoño Mejía - a drug trafficker who was the brother in law of Jorge Luis, Juan David and Fabio Ochoa Vásquez. The Ochoa brothers were, along with Pablo Escobar, the capos of the Medellin drug cartel. Uribe of course denied that they had a relationship beyond having met some time in college. But Coronell showed documents proving that less than a year later, Uribe - acting as chief of Aeronáutica Civil - authorized the import of a civilian helicopter for Israel Londoño. In September of 1983, the Minister of Justice of that time suspended the operation of 57 aircraft, including the aforementioned helicopter, because they actually belonged to drug cartels through a number of figureheads.
Years later somehow the helicopter ended up in the hands of an amnestied drug dealer named Luis Guillermo ‘Guillo’ Ángel who was close to the Ochoas back then, This helicopter had a fatal crash in 2006 in which a local politician by the name Pedro Juan Moreno Villa, who had a Secretary post for Uribe when he was governor but who had distanced himself from him during his presidency, died. Supposedly Moreno had information on Uribe's provided air logistics for a paramilitary incursion called the "Masacre del Aro". Several years later, the investigators of the case published a judiciary report stating that the most probable cause of the accident was criminal sabotage, however Uribe's Aeronautica Civil emited a preliminary report which shows a number of inconsistencies, detailed in Coronell's piece. This report was signed by its then chief Fernando Sanclemente Alzate, the same guy who's farm was found to host a coke lab just a couple of months ago.
You can read about Moreno's death from Corporación Nuevo Arco Iris - https://www.arcoiris.com.co/2016/04/quien-mato-a-pedro-juan-moreno/
I just mentioned some examples from the past days, but Colombia is rife with these "fortuitous" ocurrences and with almost daily instances of drug scandals that involve every instance of society. Colombia is the narco state par excellence. I'm sure there's plenty of people that has big interests in drug traffick flourishing, and probably through Venezuela too and not just the Pacific.
The US government isn't truly concerned either with drugs undermining the health and wellbeing of the nation
A couple of weeks ago I read a news article titled "Some Pa. Republicans are open to legalizing marijuana after coronavirus blew a hole in the budget: ‘It’s inevitable’"
https://www.inquirer.com/business/weed/pennsylvania-marijuana-legalization-recreational-use-gop-20200521.html
All it took was an economic crisis for these people to go from "devil's lettuce is destroying America" to "let's make money from recreational marijuana". With that sort of willpower and commitment to the health and wellbeing of their nation. If we are being honest, it seems that US's focus on drugs is focused primarily on the economics of it. Again. if it was a matter of flooding the US with a drug that undermines the health and wellbeing of that nation, the Slackers would have all gone to jail a long time ago.
"The family behind OxyContin pocketed $10.7 billion from Purdue Pharma. Meet the Sacklers, who built their $13 billion fortune off the controversial opioid" - https://www.businessinsider.com/who-are-the-sacklers-wealth-philanthropy-oxycontin-photos-2019-1
And obviously, the focus of the cocaine crackdown wouldn't be the Venezuela but some of its neighbors, including but not limited to Colombia.
An afterword
I suspect that some of the people that read this post will be tempted to ignore all of my sources and comment on my defending of a criminal regime, etc. I wanted to add that I really don't have a problem with drugs themselves. As a matter of fact, I believe that countries should implement models of decriminalization and regularization of the production and distribution of drugs, which approach consumption as a matter of education and public health (and the dismantling of the structures of organized crime that are fueled by the punitive prohibition approach).
The war on drugs is a plague that must be dismantled. It is equally damaging be it that the president of Venezuela is Maduro or someone like Guaidó. If people do not agree with this view, at the very least I expect them to recognize some facts that run counter to the US-led information agenda.
submitted by Beginning_Beginning to venezuela [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 05:43 Anarcho_Humanist [Marxist-Leninists] Are my criticisms of Marxist-Leninism valid?

For the sake of argument, I'll assume that nationalisation, central planning, censorship of the media, strong central government and border controls are all justified to hold off imperialism and develop the productive forces of the many feudal and post-colonial nations that became Marxist-Leninist. I still have five major criticisms of Marxist-Leninist politics:
MLs aren't electorally successful
There are ML-aligned communist parties in almost every country, but whenever elected (like Kerala, India), they act almost identically to social democrats and don't carry out the normal policies of nationalisation of almost all industry and a centrally planned economy.
Most armed ML struggles aren't successful
Most armed struggles led by MLs haven't created ML governments. ML insurrections have failed in seizing the state and creating a socialist government in Canada (Quebec), USA, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile), Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Sudan, Eritrea, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Namibia, Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Oman, Iran, Iraq), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China (yeah, you read that right), Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia) and Indonesia (let me know if one doesn't belong here or I missed one). Most of these aren't isolated revolts, but insurrections which went on for years and sometimes decades. (Note: Some of these groups did take power, but immediately became social democrats). These failures vastly outnumber the successes.
Most ML governments are... complicated
There have been 28 ML governments in history, to briefly list them:
(Apparently the MLs in Eritrea took power in 1991 and switched ideologies, so I'm not sure what's going on there)Only around half were established following a period of armed struggle. The rest either being created by military coups (Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Congo, Grenada, Somalia) or created by another government (Angola?, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, North Korea, Poland and Romania). In addition, there were 4 main 'waves' where they formed. 1922 - 1924, 1943 - 1949, 1967 - 1969 and 1974 - 1979 with only Cuba, Burkina Faso and Nepal falling outside these waves. However, 22 of these governments collapsed from 1983 - 1993, with North Korea and Cuba experiencing serious economic crisis. Only China, Cuba, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam survived this period. Either this was the result of people being angry enough at the system to overthrow it, or imperialists overthrew it. Either way, that's a massive argument against Marxist-Leninism.
ML governments have done some objective bad things
Many MLs I've talked to have a double standard
If an anarchist revolution gets crushed by imperialists, it's a sign of anarchist weakness. If MLs get crushed by imperialists, it just shows the brutality of imperialism. If Rojava works with the USA to fight ISIS, they're imperialist lapdogs. If Vietnam works with the USA to fight China (or USSR with the Nazis), it's geopolitical genius and a necessary survival tactic. If there is a rapist leading the secret police in the USSR, we cannot dismiss all of the accomplishments. But if there is an anarchist rapist, it discredits the whole of his society.
I won't deny that MLs haven't made extremely effective activists (great example from Australia) or that their governments haven't had huge improvements in quality of life, but that doesn't mean I don't see enough flaws to not consider myself one.
Please correct me if I got any historical information wrong (provide a source) and I will correct it.
submitted by Anarcho_Humanist to CapitalismVSocialism [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 05:43 Anarcho_Humanist Are my criticisms of Marxist-Leninism valid?

For the sake of argument, I'll assume that nationalisation, central planning, censorship of the media, strong central government and border controls are all justified to hold off imperialism and develop the productive forces of the many feudal and post-colonial nations that became Marxist-Leninist. I still have five major criticisms of Marxist-Leninist politics:
MLs aren't electorally successful
There are ML-aligned communist parties in almost every country, but whenever elected (like Kerala, India), they act almost identically to social democrats and don't carry out the normal policies of nationalisation of almost all industry and a centrally planned economy.
Most armed ML struggles aren't successful
Most armed struggles led by MLs haven't created ML governments. ML insurrections have failed in seizing the state and creating a socialist government in Canada (Quebec), USA, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile), Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Sudan, Eritrea, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Namibia, Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Oman, Iran, Iraq), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China (yeah, you read that right), Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia) and Indonesia (let me know if one doesn't belong here or I missed one). Most of these aren't isolated revolts, but insurrections which went on for years and sometimes decades. (Note: Some of these groups did take power, but immediately became social democrats). These failures vastly outnumber the successes.
Most ML governments are... complicated
There have been 28 ML governments in history, to briefly list them:
(Apparently the MLs in Eritrea took power in 1991 and switched ideologies, so I'm not sure what's going on there)Only around half were established following a period of armed struggle. The rest either being created by military coups (Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Congo, Grenada, Somalia) or created by another government (Angola?, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, North Korea, Poland and Romania). In addition, there were 4 main 'waves' where they formed. 1922 - 1924, 1943 - 1949, 1967 - 1969 and 1974 - 1979 with only Cuba, Burkina Faso and Nepal falling outside these waves. However, 22 of these governments collapsed from 1983 - 1993, with North Korea and Cuba experiencing serious economic crisis. Only China, Cuba, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam survived this period. Either this was the result of people being angry enough at the system to overthrow it, or imperialists overthrew it. Either way, that's a massive argument against Marxist-Leninism.
ML governments have done some objective bad things
Many MLs I've talked to have a double standard
If an anarchist revolution gets crushed by imperialists, it's a sign of anarchist weakness. If MLs get crushed by imperialists, it just shows the brutality of imperialism. If Rojava works with the USA to fight ISIS, they're imperialist lapdogs. If Vietnam works with the USA to fight China (or USSR with the Nazis), it's geopolitical genius and a necessary survival tactic. If there is a rapist leading the secret police in the USSR, we cannot dismiss all of the accomplishments. But if there is an anarchist rapist, it discredits the whole of his society.
I won't deny that MLs haven't made extremely effective activists (great example from Australia) or that their governments haven't had huge improvements in quality of life, but that doesn't mean I don't see enough flaws to not consider myself one.
Please correct me if I got any historical information wrong (provide a source) and I will correct it.
submitted by Anarcho_Humanist to DebateCommunism [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 05:42 Anarcho_Humanist Are my criticisms of Marxist-Leninism valid?

Before I say anything, I should specify that I'm not an anarchist, my politics come closest to the Zapatistas
For the sake of argument, I'll assume that nationalisation, central planning, censorship of the media, strong central government and border controls are all justified to hold off imperialism and develop the productive forces of the many feudal and post-colonial nations that became Marxist-Leninist. I still have five major criticisms of Marxist-Leninist politics:
MLs aren't electorally successful
There are ML-aligned communist parties in almost every country, but whenever elected (like Kerala, India), they act almost identically to social democrats and don't carry out the normal policies of nationalisation of almost all industry and a centrally planned economy.
Most armed ML struggles aren't successful
Most armed struggles led by MLs haven't created ML governments. ML insurrections have failed in seizing the state and creating a socialist government in Canada (Quebec), USA, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile), Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Sudan, Eritrea, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Namibia, Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Oman, Iran, Iraq), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China (yeah, you read that right), Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia) and Indonesia (let me know if one doesn't belong here or I missed one). Most of these aren't isolated revolts, but insurrections which went on for years and sometimes decades. (Note: Some of these groups did take power, but immediately became social democrats). These failures vastly outnumber the successes.
Most ML governments are... complicated
There have been 28 ML governments in history, to briefly list them:
(Apparently the MLs in Eritrea took power in 1991 and switched ideologies, so I'm not sure what's going on there)
Only around half were established following a period of armed struggle. The rest either being created by military coups (Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Congo, Grenada, Somalia) or created by another government (Angola?, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, North Korea, Poland and Romania). In addition, there were 4 main 'waves' where they formed. 1922 - 1924, 1943 - 1949, 1967 - 1969 and 1974 - 1979 with only Cuba, Burkina Faso and Nepal falling outside these waves. However, 22 of these governments collapsed from 1983 - 1993, with North Korea and Cuba experiencing serious economic crisis. Only China, Cuba, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam survived this period. Either this was the result of people being angry enough at the system to overthrow it, or imperialists overthrew it. Either way, that's a massive argument against Marxist-Leninism.
ML governments have done some objective bad things
Many MLs I've talked to have a double standard
If an anarchist revolution gets crushed by imperialists, it's a sign of anarchist weakness. If MLs get crushed by imperialists, it just shows the brutality of imperialism. If Rojava works with the USA to fight ISIS, they're imperialist lapdogs. If Vietnam works with the USA to fight China (or USSR with the Nazis), it's geopolitical genius and a necessary survival tactic. If there is a rapist leading the secret police in the USSR, we cannot dismiss all of the accomplishments. But if there is an anarchist rapist, it discredits the whole of his society.
I won't deny that MLs haven't made extremely effective activists (great example from Australia) or that their governments haven't had huge improvements in quality of life, but that doesn't mean I don't see enough flaws to not consider myself one.
Please correct me if I got any historical information wrong (provide a source) and I will correct it.
submitted by Anarcho_Humanist to AnarchismVsMarxism [link] [comments]


2020.05.19 16:20 Superfan234 test8

On a previous post, u/DerJagger asked me an intresting question I think it's worth to expand more
How long do we have until the regime's revenue dries up and what happens after that? This is probably the golden question that some important people are trying to figure out but I'm curious to know what you think
One of the Key reasons I belive the Venezuela Regime is about to fall, is how fast their Last Saving are being depleted.
For years, Venezuela have been trapped in a Perfect storm. With a massive decrease in Revenue, and little to no saving to sustain itself. Between Coronavirus and USA sanctions, situation can only get worse
Just last week, they increased the price of Gasoline in 50$ Cents. It might sound crazy, but it shows how desperate is the Regime for more money

1.1 The Vaults Of Venezuela's Central Bank

During the prime time of the Venezuelan Economic Boom, Chavez managed to amaze a tremendous amount money at his disposal, and at least 30 Billion dollars in International Reserves were stored in case of emergency
Chavez's savings helped him to survive the Oil crash of 2008. In 2011, he decided to store all the Gold he could in the vaults of the Venezuelan Central Bank
Maduro, a man notorious for his lack long last planning, couldn't resist the urge to use those deposits, and a year after his mentor passed away, he quickly started to deplete BCV vaults. In just 7 years, he wasted 80% of his predecessor savings. And, somehow, still managed to defund all public services and hit Default
Let's analyze more in depth the numbers
International Reserves of Venezuela, at the start of each new year [*]
  • 2013 = 28.8$ Billion Dollars
  • 2014 = 21.6$ Billions
  • 2015 = 22.1$ Billions
  • 2016 = 15.6$ Billions
  • 2017 = 11.0$ Billions
  • 2018 = 9.4$ Billions
  • 2019 = 8.5$ Billions
  • 2020 = 6.6$ Billions
  • 2020 (*June) = ~4.5$ Billions
As you can see, during the Goverment of Maduro the savings of the BCV have dropped at an alarming rate. In 2020, the Crisis became even worse, because USA sanctions blocked some Gold reserves the BCV had overseas. In practice, the Regime only have access to 4.5 Billion Dollars in Reserves stored in Venezuela: 3.5 Billion in the form of Gold, and around 1 Billion in cash [*]

1.2 Out of Cash?

There is an easy way to tell when someone is lying. Don't focus on what people say , focus on what they Do
And it the case of The Revolution, their later actions are pretty revealing
  • For first time in 20 years of Chavisism, Maduro asked a lend to the IMF
  • In early 2020, they asked for 350 million Dollars lend from the Comunidad Andina, to pay some "electric reparations" [*]
  • They recently announced a 25% increase in Dollar Taxes [*]
  • A massive increase in Gasoline prices. An increase of 50 cents from last week. On top of that, Gasoline can only be paid in Dollars
  • They have stopped increasing the Minimum wage, leaving it at only per 4 Dollars a month
  • Public Workers, where most of his supporters are, are fired by the thousands. Those who stay, are paid less than 10 dollars a month
  • Public pensions have been reduced to mere 2 Dollars a month
  • Money Bonus they used to give to their supporters have decreased to just 2 Dollars in the past months
  • Low salaries have reached even the Military. At least 6000 soldiers abandoned the Army in 2019 , low salaries might be one the reasons[*]
  • Maduro was ready to make some "mighty" Military exercises, to scare USA. The Result? Two days of Military presence in the whole year 2020
Something I find particularly interesting, was the last payment done by Venezuela to Iran.
For those of you who don't know, last month Maduro paid ~500 million Dollars to Iran to import some Tankers full of Gasoline. What's weird about this payment, it was the way it was done.
According to the USA intel, the payment was made using solid gold, almost 9 tons of it. And they were sent by plane
Why Maduro decided to send Half a Billion dollars worth of Gold, instead of Dollars? Wouldn't be safer to pay in cash instead?
Sending so much Gold by plane is a dangerous transaction. As far as we know, that's almost 15% of Venezuelan Gold Reserves in just one payment
And why didn't they buy more Gasoline? The Tankers they bought barely lasted a week
Doubts increase when Maduro suddenly increased Gasoline by 50 cents. And forced buyers to pay in physical USA Dollars. To pay Gasoline at international prices it's something venezuelans haven't done in Decades. And only accept Dollars as payment? Odd, considering they the Dollar is USA's currency
After 2015, the ability of the Regime to make profits have decayed to point they are not capable to finance their most basic needs, including the wages of the Military and Police
I suspect that's why the Military are now in charge of gasoline stations. It's the only way The Regime can pay the Military with real money (and that's why they ask venezuelans to pay in Dollars, instead of Bolivars)
But this system depends on the ability of Maduro to pay for more Gasoline. And with the BCV Gold reserves almost depleted, Who is going to pay for more Gasoline?
Stopping the flow of Gasoline to Venezuela, implies Military is not going to be paid anymore. That's something the Regime wants to avoid at all cost, but it seems like an inevitable fate at this point
submitted by Superfan234 to test [link] [comments]


2020.05.18 18:15 Superfan234 The Fall of Venezuela's Regime: Maduro's Revenue Sources

Welcome to another edition of my EffortPost Series, preview of a possible Second Coup Attempt in Venezuela
Venezuela's Regime have suffered a massive decrease in revenue sources over the last 5 years. On 2019, SENIAT informed contributions from Wealth Taxes, IVA and other associated Tax Incomes closed near 30 trillion Boliviars
Due to Venezuelan hyperinflation, translate Bolivars into dollars is not an easy task. But, in average, each month Venezuela reports 140 million dollars on Tax Revenue
With a yearly income of ~1.7 Billion dollars, their annual budget of 4.5 Billion dollars does looks a little suspicious. But it could easly be explained by Inorganic Bolivars entering the market. At cost of Mass Hyperinflation, they manage to sustain their Government for another couple of months
But overseas, that trick won’t fly. No one outised Venezuela will take those Bolivars regardless of what Maduro has to say. So they gotta have a reliable source of dollars to pay for their imports, debts and bribes
So…Where are all those dollars coming from?

PART 1.1 OIL EXPORTS

Let's start with the most obvious source of Income: Oil. Almost 95% of legal Venezuelan exports are oil related, being also the biggest (legal) source of revenue for the Regime
But...How much profits PDVSA really produces?
According to Reuters*, PDVSA made over 106 Billions dollars in 2012. By 2018, and following a sharp decline in global prices, that figure dropped to 21 Billions
In 2019, both the USA and Lima's Group initiated economic sanctions on Venezuela in attempt to oust Maduro
Sanctions have been the Bane of Maduro's Regime. On top of their already lackluster revenue, restrictions pushed away many of their trading partners, to a point PDVSA was forced to add discounts on their Oil Barrells*, in an attempt keep their allies from leaving. According to Reuters insiders, those discounts could go as high as 50%* of the real Barrel value
Production costs in Venezuela are state secret, making the royalties PDVSA produces to the State a mystery. Reuters informant were told the production cost went from $10 to $12 per barrel, excluding a 33% royalty PDVSA pays to the government. It's unclear if those cost include trading those barrels
Some experts say PDVSA becomes profitable at 18$ per barrel*. On 2016, PDVSA itself reported the profit margin started a 23$
A couple of days ago, Maduro recognized they wouldn’t make any profit if prices go lower than 28$ per barrel*. Weather this is true or not, it's hard to say. But analyst estimate the expected revenue coming from PDVSA to the State will decrease to a mere 4.5 Billons with the barrel on 25$*
Profits coming from PDVSA : ~4.5 Billion Dollars

PART 1.2 ILLEGAL GOLD MINING

Illegal Gold mining in Amazonas have turned into the second source of income for Venezuela State. It's reported 91% of Gold extracted in Venezuela is not produced legally*. According to Lima's Group, it's the biggest Ecocide the Amazon is facing right now
Gold coming from violent extraction is "washed" and melted with legal gold, then passed off as 'bleached' to the vaults of state or private banks*. This process is mostly coordinated by two groups: Guerrillas in the Amazons and the Central Bank of Venezuela, that (allegedly) does most of the money laundering
This profitable crime has recently become more dangerous, as result of International pressure. Attempts to catch illegal mining trade across the borders have increased, causing millions of dollars in lost revenue with each new confiscation
• How much profits Illegal Mining produces?
In 2019, Government expected to receive 5 billion dollars from Gold Mining in 2019 (It's unclear if this occurred or not). Congress, on the other hand, reports this number is closer 1.8 Billion. This seems to be in line with the number reported by the Government in 2018, when Venezuela announced 2 Billion dollars in royalties from Gold extraction
Profits coming from Gold extraction: ~2 Billion Dollars

PART 1.3 DRUG TRAFFIC

Biggest fully Illegal source of revenue for Venezuela's Government. The Government officials involved in this scheme are part of the Cartel de los Soles*
“There are indications that in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, criminal groups have succeeded in infiltrating government security forces, forming an informal network known as the ‘Cartel of the Suns’ to facilitate the passage of illicit drugs into and out the country,” indicated the report of InSight Crime on February 27, 2020
The amount of revenue coming from drug traffic taxes is unclear. The closer numbers I could find was a 2017 USA report about money laundering in the Alba Coalition rising to ~2 Billion dollars across the whole Region
Similar to Gold mining, International enemies of Maduro have drastically increased their confiscations of Drugs near the Caribbe, in an attempt to stop Cartel de los Soles main source of revenue. USA's South Command is now deployed near Venezuela, taking all chances they get to capture narcotics exports
• How much of that revenue actually goes to the Venezuelan State?
It's fair to say Gangs pay tariffs to operate in Venezuela, but how much of those tariffs goes to Tax Payer money is impossible to find. Personally, I imagine most of that revenue stays in hands of the Military officers and members of the Government
Profits coming from Drug Traffic: Unclear. Most likely, less than ~2 Billions

PART 1.4 PDVSA ASSETS

Soft-Privatization of PDVSA is certainly a controversial topic. But, given the current circumstances, seems to be the last source of revenue possible to sustain the Venezuelan boat afloat
Recently, the Government announced a re-structure of the Oil Company. According to worldoil.com, the plan is cut in half PDVSA’s 24 affiliates, including construction and farming projects. Foreign offices and assets in Ecuador, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina are to be sold, leaving only some existing branches in the Caribbean and the U.S. Plus, International partners at nearly half of 46 joint ventures will take majority control*
With PDVSA-only operated fields opening to foreign investment, more investments could come to country. But, as shown by the Russian company Rosneft, companies willing to cooperate with Venezuela are subject to USA sanctions. Just last week, the Swedish refinery Nynas announced PDVSA sold their majority in shares to avoid USA Sanctions*. Even the Oil giant Rosneft, had to stop their Direct transactions with PDVSA to avoid economic pressure coming from the White House
• How much PDVSA assets produce?
In theory, the Oil Company have massive amounts of assets on his disposal. In practice, situation is far more complicate than that.
The amount of Debt piling up in PDVSA have go trough the roof in the past decade*, and both Investors and Banks are seeking to seize Venezuela assets in compensation to their unpaid debts * To keep PDVSA functioning, Maduro had to find a way to pay off some of their Debt to key investors. It's my educated guess, their way of paying up, is selling their Oil Company assets across the World and (in the future) privatize PDVSA
(Privatize PDVSA itself has a key problem though…But I am going to leave that topic for another post)
Profits coming from PDVSA assets: Unclear. Shares might be sold as Debt payment to Key economic partners

PART 1.5 CENTRAL BANK OF VENEZUELA

The International Reserves of the Central Bank of Venezuela are a key player in Maduro's Regime. It deserves its own post, so I will leave this part for another day...
submitted by Superfan234 to neoliberal [link] [comments]


2020.05.18 16:48 someoneispeeing Emerald hyperinflation in the Hermitcraft Economy

Yay! More economics, but this time with a dash of economic ruination. Grian has once again plagued me with the need to talk about politics on the server. The mayoral race comes along with all of the candidates having their own policies. Some candidates brought up the idea of changing the currency used in the shopping district to emeralds. This is problematic, and something that I had discussed prior in a discussion about why Diamonds make the perfect currency on the server. Now that there's a genuine potential that this Emerald currency could become a reality, I have to discuss it in depth and the potential repercussion of such an event (using a real life example of mass inflation).
Like all of my posts, I need to do some clarifications on what we're talking about. We are not talking about the value of real life emeralds, because they are expensive as all heck. Some have tried to conflate these two, and I don't think it makes sense when we're looking at such a unique economy. Things have very different values in minecraft than they do in the real world, so I think it's best to keep those two separate.
I made a larger post discussing why Diamonds make the perfect currency on the server in which I compared them to the gold standard. I stand by that post, and highly suggest you read it. I don't want to regurgitate too much of the information I put in that post (although there will be a link to it in the comments). To put it simply, Diamonds are the perfect currency because they can't be farmed without effort, have uses outside of currency, enter the server at a consistent rate, and have an agreed upon value. All of these are why they are used in the shopping district. At face value, Emeralds are similar to diamonds in that they are both rare materials that are found underground. But there is a weird thing about them, in that they are both rare and not rare at the same time.
Without Villagers, getting emeralds is hard. You have to find them in chests or in Mountain biomes in which they are the rarest ore in the game. They only spawn in small veins and require much more effort than diamonds in gathering in mass. there's a pretty funny irony here, as that rarity is oddly similar to diamonds in our real world. Admittedly, when looking at the other metallic currencies like gold and silver, diamond seems like another good candidate as a part of an old world economy. So, for the sake of science, let's say that you wanted to create a diamond backed currency. Why isn't that viable?
Surprisingly, some groups have tried this idea. An Israeli Cryptocurrency created 2017 attempted to back itself with the diamond trade. When a currency is "backed" by a metal or material, this means that the currency has it's value based on that item. For most of history, currency was gold or silver backed. This is why Fort Knox contains a load of gold. It's not for protecting the materials, it's for keeping it in case someone wants to exchange it for something else. When a currency is backed, it can be traded for that material. In theory, you could go up to the bank and trade in your greenbacks for ounces of gold. You can't nowadays, as currency in America stopped being gold backed during the Nixon Presidency, but that's beside the point. gold is found across the world and has been used as currency and to back currency for a while. Gold was special, as it didn't tarnish or rust and was easier to smelt than most other metals. This meant that older civilizations could form metals like gold into coin shaped materials (Or other shapes. Fun fact- During the Zhou dynasty in china, the currency was shaped like knives. The different shape of the knife denoted the worth as well. Imagine getting mugged for money by a person using that money. This is an exception rather than the norm, as most currencies were shaped into simple geometric shapes rather than murder weapons). Even in the older days of civilization, people wanted their currency to look alike. Diamonds can't be smelted, as they are a crystal and not a metal. They can be cut, but that's about it. Diamonds are even rarer than Gold and have different uses than the metal. Gold backed currency became standard after it stopped being the actual currency out of those principals and the fact that it would last a while in storage. Diamonds last forever, but gold also lasts a really long time without having much issue. The similarities add up. Emeralds are rare, have different uses than diamonds, and can't be shaped into useful things afterwords. Diamonds can be made into tools, and emeralds can be made into blocks. That's it. But that's not what I wanted to talk about with Emeralds. Because villagers exist, and they make emeralds far from rare. In fact, they make them too common.
To be blunt, villagers can be broken. If you take the right steps, you can easily turn your huddle of villagers into easy pickings for emeralds. The main method of doing this is curing the villager. Villagers run their prices off of your reputation, and curing a villager gives you a ton of good boy points. They spread that reputation to other villagers which lowers their prices as well, making their trades easy pickings. If you keep doing this, you can amass massive stacks of emeralds in short periods of time. For this essay, I'm not going to focus on the Emerald- Item trades you have with villagers, as they aren't on the same level as the trades that occur in the shopping district. There are other methods of getting emeralds, but this method blows all of them out of the water. Raids also can drop these in pretty fair amounts, especially if you set up an infinite raid farm. To put it bluntly, these things are easy to get compared to almost any other ore in the game. And there's another little caveat that makes their potential introduction into the economy problematic- They aren't backed. Emeralds have no backing with another material. You can't purchase any other metal using them, whether it be iron or diamonds. You can get tools, food, and enchanting books from villagers, but none of those materials are viable as backing. And when you have a mass producible currency that has little to no backing, you're going to get inflation. And with a currency as farmable as emeralds, you're going to get inflation fast.
Allow me to tell you a story, a cautionary tale if you will (I suggest you read this slowly, as it leads to more dramatic flair). There's a reason why Governments don't just print massive amounts of money at one time, and what happens when they do. There's also a reason why governments are very careful when making changes to their currency. Inflation is the simple de-valuement of currency. This is entirely natural, as more currency is created and added over time. You can slow it by producing less currency or backing the currency with a material, but inflation is natural. In fact, inflation is good when it is under control and is managed carefully by governments. In America, the ideal amount of inflation is 2 percent. There are many reasons why this inflation is good, but they aren't as important. When inflation get's completely out of control, we call that hyperinflation. When money loses value, or when a lot of people lose money, this causes inflation to rise. This happened in 2008 when the stock market crashed due to the housing crisis. America has had some bad inflation in previous years, but it never was too bad. Democracy is good at allowing many different people to try and offer solutions to nation wide problems like depressions or recessions. Before they were free, Britain intentionally hurt the American economy through acts like the Currency Act of 1751, which drained America of all of its silver and gold by making it the only tradeable currency within the colonies. When money loses worth, it creates the need for more money, which creates inflation. That's the simple equation. But this is only to give context to how hyperinflation works. Because if you want to see what true hyperinflation looks like, you need to look at Venezuela.
Venezuela is an oil economy, a country which made most of its money off of the sale of oil. When oil prices were good, the country did well. It did really well under this economy for a while, although there were some big spikes in inflation in the bolivar, Venezuela's currency. Before Chavez's death, the inflation rate could reach highs of nearly 40%. That's bad, really bad, but that's only the start. It grew and grew as time went on, and would continue when Nicholas Maduro came into office in 2013. Not only did it follow them, but it continued to grow and grow. In 2015, the inflation rate was 181%. In 2016, it grew to 800%. In 2017, it was 4000%, with 3 0s. And in 2018, the inflation rate hit the high 1,700,000%. An inflation rate in the millions dwarfs the 2% that America strives for. By the end of 2019, the rate was estimated to be 10,000,000%. In August, 2018, the exchange rate of bolivars to US Dollars was 5 million to 1. One dollar. A $27 dollar purchase of Minecraft would be 135,000,000 bolivars, which was thousands of times higher than the minimum wage at the time. Even with the exchange rate lowered in recent times, most Venezuelans make only $2 American dollars a month in bolivars. How does that even happen, and why is this important to the Hermitcraft server? Simple- Exchange Rates.
American Dollars are the standard which all of the worlds economies are based on, similar to how diamonds are the standard for which all economics on the Hermitcraft server are based on. This is part of the reason why I used America for most of my economic examples during this post. Just like how gold backed currencies could be exchanged for gold, bolivars could be exchanged for US dollars. In Venezuela, the Maduro administration continued to increase the exchange rate over time, which gradually grew more and more until it reached it's peak of 5 million to 1. This has slowed in recent times to the thousands (around 20,000 to one at the time of writing this. That's still terrible, but it's not as absurd), but to put it bluntly, the continued intentional additions to the currency's conversion rate spiraled into making the bolivar almost worthless. There are many other reasons for this hyperinflation, and it's still ongoing, but this is the main one I wanted to talk about.
So, let's say we change the currency to emeralds. Almost immediately, shops have to change their prices to this new standard. If there is no diamond backing or exchange rate for diamonds, most hermits wouldn't bother with stocking up shops as the currency used would have no useful backing other than trade with Hermits. Due to the ease of Emerald farming, prices would rise exponentially as more and more emeralds are created and put into the economy. Other than trade with Villagers and with other hermits, the item has no value and isn't rare or has a controlled flow into the economy. This would occur even with a diamond backing, as there isn't a viable way to limit the production and usage of emeralds. A diamond backed currency would have even more issues. Let's just say we use that giant diamond pile to convert the emeralds into diamonds, a fort knox if you will. If Emeralds is constantly added into the system, exchanging them for diamonds would be easy. If the exchange rate isn't high and isn't constantly growing, Hermits will just use emeralds to exchange for diamonds rather than using them in the market. Constantly increasing the price of exchange rates, would also increase the prices of shops, as they need to keep their prices up to make the emeralds useful in their exchange with diamonds. The only solution to stopping this growth would be to slow the introduction of Emeralds into the economy, which would likely cause economic growth to slow as people would be reluctant to try and add emeralds into the market. This is why Emeralds would create hyperinflation, and why Venezuela is such a good comparison. To put it bluntly, Emeralds would break the shopping district, and ruin the Hermitcraft Economy.
I know I made this sound more grandiose than it could ever look like, especially on the small scale that is the server, but I think that it's a realistic look at the flaws of changing the currency used on the server. There are many other issues that come with a sudden shift in currency, such as a burst of economic slow down that would occur as the shops try to shift to this new standard, and the methods of containment for the now larger amount of currency being traded, but inflation is just a fun subject and has a lot of interesting stories behind it. So, let's all hope and pray that we don't see a massive change in currency after the new mayor is elected. I mean, I doubt that will happen at all, but I still wanted to make a post on it. Economics and history are kinda my thing on this sub-reddit.
Edit: Kinda had the small realization that I had gone on a tangent about a minecraft server that I somehow linked to the economic crisis in venezuela. It be like that.
submitted by someoneispeeing to HermitCraft [link] [comments]


2020.05.13 02:17 Superfan234 test0

Welcome to another edition of my EffortPost Series, preview of a possible Second Coup Attempt in Venezuela
Venezuela's Regime have suffered a massive decrease in revenue sources over the last 5 years. On 2019, SENIAT informed contributions from Wealth Taxes, IVA and other associated Tax Incomes closed near 30 trillion Boliviars
Due to Venezuelan hyperinflation, translate Bolivars into dollars is not an easy task. But, in average, each month Venezuela reports 140 million dollars on Tax Revenue
With a yearly income of ~1.7 Billion dollars, their annual budget of 4.5 Billion dollars looks suspicious. But it could easly be explained by Inorganic Bolivars entering the market. At cost of Mass Hyperinflation, they manage to sustain their Government for another couple of months
But overseas, that trick won’t fly. No one outised Venezuela will take those Bolivars regardless of what Maduro has to say. So they gotta have a reliable source of dollars to pay for their imports, debts and bribes
So…Where are all those dollars coming from?
-----------------------------

PART 1.1 OIL EXPORTS

-----------------------------
Let's start with the most obvious source of Income: Oil. Almost 95% of legal Venezuelan exports are oil related, being also the biggest (legal) source of revenue for the Regime
But...How much profits PDVSA really produces?
According to Reuters*, PDVSA made over 106 Billions dollars in 2012. By 2018, and following a sharp decline in global prices, that figure dropped to 21 Billions
In 2019, both the USA and Lima's Group initiated economic sanctions on Venezuela in attempt to oust Maduro
Sanctions have been the Bane of Maduro's Regime. On top of their already lackluster revenue, restrictions pushed away many of their trading partners, to point a PDVSA was forced to add discounts on their Oil Barrells*, in an attempt keep their allies from leaving them. According to Reuters insiders, those discounts could go as high as 50%* of the real Barrel value
Production costs in Venezuela are state secret, making the royalties PDVSA produces to the State a mystery. Reuters informant were told the cost went from $10 to $12 per barrel, excluding a 33% royalty PDVSA pays to the government. It's unclear if those cost include trading those barrels Some experts say PDVSA becomes profitable at 18$ per barrel*. On 2016, PDVSA itself reported the profit margin started a 23$
A couple of days ago, Maduro recognized they wouldn’t make any profit if prices go lower than 28$ per barrel*. Weather this is true or not, it's hard to say. But analyst estimate the expected revenue coming from PDVSA to the State will decrease to a mere 4.5 Billons with the barrel on 25$*
Profits coming from PDVSA : ~4.5 Billion Dollars
-----------------------------

PART 1.2 ILLEGAL GOLD MINING

-----------------------------
Illegal Gold mining in Amazonas have turned into the second source of income for Venezuela State. It's reported 91% of Gold extracted in Venezuela is not produced legally*. According to Lima's Group, it's the biggest Ecocide the Amazon is facing right now Gold coming from violent extraction is "washed" and melted with legal gold, then passed off as 'bleached' to the vaults of state or private banks*. This process is mostly coordinated by two groups: Guerrillas in the Amazons and the Central Bank of Venezuela, that (allegedly) does most of the money laundering
This profitable crime has recently become more dangerous, as result of International pressure. Attempts to catch illegal mining trade across the borders have increased, causing millions of dollars in lost revenue with each new confiscation
• How much profits Illegal Mining produces?
In 2019, Government expected to receive 5 billion dollars from Gold Mining in 2019 (It's unclear if this occurred or not). Congress, on the other hand, reports this number is closer 1.8 Billion. This seems to be in line with the number reported by the Government in 2018, when Venezuela announced 2 Billion dollars in royalties from Gold extraction
Profits coming from Gold extraction: ~2 Billion Dollars
-----------------------------

PART 1.3 DRUG TRAFFIC

-----------------------------
Biggest fully Illegal source of revenue for Venezuela's Government. The Government officials involved in this scheme are part of the Cartel de los Soles*
“There are indications that in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, criminal groups have succeeded in infiltrating government security forces, forming an informal network known as the ‘Cartel of the Suns’ to facilitate the passage of illicit drugs into and out the country,” indicated the report of InSight Crime on February 27, 2020
The amount of revenue coming from drug traffic taxes is unclear. The closer numbers I could find was a 2017 USA report about money laundering in the Alba Coalition rising to ~2 Billion dollars across the whole Region
Similar to Gold mining, International enemies of Maduro have drastically increased their confiscations of Drugs near the Caribbe, in an attempt to stop Cartel de los Soles main source of revenue. USA's South Command is now deployed near Venezuela, taking all chances they get to capture narcotics exports
• How much of that revenue actually goes to the Venezuelan State?
It's fair to say Gangs pay a tariffs to operate in Venezuela, but how much of those tariffs goes to Tax Payer money is impossible to find. Most likely, most of that revenue stays within the Military officers and members of the Government
Profits coming from Drug Traffic: Unclear. Most likely, less than ~2 Billions
-----------------------------

PART 1.4 PDVSA ASSETS

-----------------------------
Soft-Privatization of PDVSA is certainly a controversial topic. But, given the current circumstances, seems to be the last source of revenue possible to sustain the Venezuelan boat afloat
Recently, the Government announced a re-structure of the Oil Company. According to worldoil.com, the plan is cut in half PDVSA’s 24 affiliates, including construction and farming projects. Foreign offices and assets in Ecuador, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina are to be sold, leaving only some existing branches in the Caribbean and the U.S. Plus, International partners at nearly half of 46 joint ventures will take majority control*
With PDVSA-only operated fields opening to foreign investment, more investments could come to country. But, as shown by the Russian company Rosneft, companies willing to cooperate with Venezuela are subject to USA sanctions. Just last week, the Swedish refinery Nynas announced PDVSA sold their majority in shares to avoid USA Sanctions*. Even the Oil giant Rosneft, had to stop their Direct transactions with PDVSA to avoid economic pressure coming from the White House
• How much PDVSA assets produce?
In theory, the Oil Company have massive amounts of assets on his disposal. In practice, situation is far more complicate than that.
The amount of Debt piling up in PDVSA have go trough the roof in the past decade*, and both Investors and Banks are seeking to seize Venezuela assets in compensation to their unpaid debts * To keep PDVSA functioning, Maduro had to find a way to pay off some of their Debt to key investors. It's my educated guess, their way of paying up, is selling their Oil Company assets across the World and (in the future) privatize PDVSA
(Privatize PDVSA itself has a key problem though…But I am going to leave that topic for another post)
Profits coming from PDVSA assets: Unclear. Shares might be sold as Debt payment to Key economic partners
-----------------------------

PART 1.5 CENTRAL BANK OF VENEZUELA

-----------------------------
The International Reserves of the Central Bank of Venezuela are a key player in Maduro's Regime. It deserves its own post, so I will leave this part for another day...
submitted by Superfan234 to test [link] [comments]


2020.04.25 06:38 Inuma Repost of /u/IDreamtIWokeUp and his post on Biden with A LOT of his policy positions

I take no credit for this. It's just me copying and pasting from a certain hostile sub that shall remain nameless.
Anyway, enjoy the work of idreamtiwokeup and his hard work pointing out Biden's policies from a few months back:

FOREIGN POLICY

CIVIL LIBERTIES

WAR ON DRUGS:

GUNS:

REFORMS:

ECONOMY

QUESTIONABLE ASSOCIATIONS:

HEALTH CARE AND ENTITLEMENTS:

BIGOTRY AND SEXISM:

ENVIRONMENT:

MENTAL HEALTH:

CORRUPTION:

...
Special thanks to Weston David Pagano for many of these nuggets.
submitted by Inuma to WayOfTheBern [link] [comments]


La CRISIS DE VENEZUELA en 7 Minutos ⏱ [BIEN EXPLICADA ... La crisis económica de Venezuela  Así está la cosa VENEZUELA: Desesperación y hambre de un pueblo destruído La CRISIS en VENEZUELA 🇻🇪️🇻🇪 ️en 15 MIN (Economía ... La crisis migratoria de Venezuela pone en alerta a sus vecinos The Venezuela Crisis: State Of Disaster  Full Documentary ... Crisis económica de Venezuela al borde del colapso en 2018 SITUACIÓN DE VENEZUELA  Buenos Días Canarias Venezuela crisis: Where families buy rotten meat to eat ... LA CRISIS DE VENEZUELA en 8 minutos - YouTube

Crisis en Venezuela 'Yo quiero que Maduro se vaya mañana ...

  1. La CRISIS DE VENEZUELA en 7 Minutos ⏱ [BIEN EXPLICADA ...
  2. La crisis económica de Venezuela Así está la cosa
  3. VENEZUELA: Desesperación y hambre de un pueblo destruído
  4. La CRISIS en VENEZUELA 🇻🇪️🇻🇪 ️en 15 MIN (Economía ...
  5. La crisis migratoria de Venezuela pone en alerta a sus vecinos
  6. The Venezuela Crisis: State Of Disaster Full Documentary ...
  7. Crisis económica de Venezuela al borde del colapso en 2018
  8. SITUACIÓN DE VENEZUELA Buenos Días Canarias
  9. Venezuela crisis: Where families buy rotten meat to eat ...
  10. LA CRISIS DE VENEZUELA en 8 minutos - YouTube

Desde que comenzó la crisis en Venezuela, en 2015, se han ido 2,3 millones de personas. En los últimos meses un nuevo repunte ha hecho que miles de venezolanos huyan de la crisis económica y ... Dejan todo y se van a vivir en carpas a un lugar desconocido: así es la huída desesperada de los venezolanos buscando un futuro. SUSCRIBETE: https://goo.gl/JJLe4G Te RESUMO la Crisis de Venezuela en 7 minutos. Descubre desde el inicio porque se marco esta ruta de extrema pobreza, vio... Crisis económica de Venezuela al borde del colapso en 2018 Cambio16. ... 2018. Leer más en https ... Venezuela- Crisis obliga a buscar comida en la basura ... ⚠️⚠️ADVERTENCIA⚠️⚠️ Este vídeo sobre la 'CRISIS en VENEZUELA EN 15 MINUTOS' no busca hacer apología a la inmigración masiva, ni a criticar la forma de pensar... Millions of Venezuelans have left the country in the last two years, fleeing the oil-rich nation’s economic collapse. Shortages of food and basic goods, year... Once the richest nation in Latin America, Venezuela is now a broken economy enveloped in crime, corruption and hyperinflation. The downfall of Venezuela serv... The Venezuelan Conflict in 8 minutes. A summary of the origins of the crisis in Venezuela that is still valid today. It's time to talk about Venezuela since ... Published on Aug 20, 2018. ... Dramático éxodo de venezolanos por crisis en Venezuela - Duration: 14:35. T13 27,447 views. 14:35. La crisis del hambre en Venezuela ... Venezuela atraviesa una crisis económica sin precedentes por problemas estructurales, influencia externa y errores de política monetaria. ... 2018. Venezuela atraviesa una crisis económica sin ...